Found it raining again this morning. Bill rode to Mrs. McGeorge’s to get her boy to hang our seine. He came over soon after he returned and hung the seine before dinner. – – Sent Washington to Harden’s with a letter to Zac for Kit to carry tomorrow when he returns to his company. – – Susan is with her mother, who is ill, and sent me word by Martha yesterday that Kit would carry a letter.1We met Robert Christopher (Kit) Hill in a footnote 16 July last. But this is the first time Caroline mentions him by name. He is the husband of Cornelia Todd [Littlepage] Hill of Aspen Grove, and a member of King William’s Company H, Ninth Virginia Cavalry. His war record is unusual. He enlisted in September, 1862 and served unremarkably, as best we can tell from the surviving paperwork, until August 1864. He then disappears from Confederate records. AWOL. He quickly reappears in Federal records as a deserter. After taking an oath of allegiance to the United States in Washington, he is transferred to Philadelphia. Six months later Caroline records him back home and heading back to his company. He will be captured in four days, on 3 April, 1865, maybe still carrying Caroline’s letter to Zac. He was paroled in Richmond on the 20th. Perhaps his descendants can fill us in on the backstory. The “Kit” Hills will inherit Aspen Grove and live there the remainder of their lives. – – Bill went out and caught a nice parcel of shad this evening with the new seine. The wind rose and he did not go out as he intended. – – Bartlett arrived from Richmond, 1 o’clk., with two bags salt @ $.80 per pound, a coffee pot $30, and tin cups. Mary sent me some tomato plants, but he left them on the way.
A delightful rainy day, as mild and balmy as May. We were troubled right much last night on hearing that the gun boats were landing Yankees at the W. House again. Sent Martha and Addison to Ju’s for a few potatoes and some salad. Received a note from Ju more cheering. – – The rain has come down in torrents today. The freshet was too great to bring the cows across the meadow. Cleared up and had a beautiful sunset and twilight. Bill and I sat in the front porch and enjoyed it very much. He wound a ball of cotton to hang the seine with. – – Clouded up and suddenly had a tremendous rain.
Quite a beautiful morning. Liv, after arranging his things and getting ready, started over to Richmond in the little wagon with Bartlett to drive. Sent Mary a bushel sweet potato seed to plant and a jar of molasses. Filled Liv’s canteen with some and put up some things for him, one ham and shoulder and various little necessaries. Poor child, it grieves me so to see him start away again. Gave him $500, also $200 to buy salt, &c. Sent 72 shad to dispose of after giving Mary some. O me, I feel so sad! From the papers, the Yankees seem to be gaining ground everywhere. – – Bake has undertaken quite a troublesome job today in the garden. Made a sweet little spot around her Pa’s grave. Gave her the little chaps to do what she wished done in removing dirt and bringing moss and gravel. – – There seems to be something inviting now, more so than ever in the quiet little enclosure. Though war and tumult are without, there is peace within that hallowed spot to me! – – Bill walked through to the C. H. and met Liv there and took his leave.
Quite a pretty day. Bill rode Jim to the C. H. and brought letters and papers, the first that we had received for weeks. Bake, Pigeo and Nan received letters from Zac. He is now in Brunswick County. – – Had bacon, lard, molasses, &c brought in the house, ten pieces bacon stolen while out. I think it is a shame. – – Martha has been cleaning up below two days, and I think it will take two days more before I can go down and make use of the rooms again. – – Liv expects to start tomorrow. Sent to Hill’s and borrowed his little wagon to send him over in, sent them a shad. – – Sowed another row of early York Cabbage in my hot bed. – – Fixed up some things for Liv. – – Wrote a PS to Bake’s letter to Hardie and Mary. I also wrote to Hollins Institute respecting the children for Liv to take to Richmond. Wish to enter both till they are educated. – – Patsy came in the chamber to spin with Martha on her wheel.
Quite a pretty day, though a freeze last night. Sent to Ju’s for some English peas for another row by Buck, sent them a shad. Planting potato square in pop corn and two rows early corn, and sowed the row of peas. Hal and Jake White came and spent the morning. – – It’s distressing to hear from different sources what people have suffered by the enemy. – – Bill attended court. – – Liv floated today and caught some 40 or 50 shad. – – The Yankees have driven me from the basement ever since Friday. Today I thought I would make a commencement about cleaning up and putting the empty things in place again. Martha found about two bushels potato seed they had left in the chaff. Promised Jake to let his father have what he wanted and asked him to save me five gallons vinegar.
Quite a pretty day. As no one could attend church, the children, i.e. Bake and Pigeo with Martha and Mary, spent the day at Ju’s, having heard this morning by Washington that the Yankees had left the White House. I permitted them to go over to see how things were and perhaps get something. – – Bill and Liv brought up two pieces more of bacon, making that three in all this week. Three pieces more are stolen, they find out upon examination. I think it is really shameful to think the way we exert ourselves in every way to try and save a sufficiency for the year, that it should go in this way. We accuse no one, but can’t help having our opinion in the matter. Just as our dinner was ready, Mr. Thornton came with the Yankees _?_ guard left at Mr. Robins and Mr. Johnson, to know if Bill knew what must be done with them.1The writing here is badly damaged. But in context I believe the missing word is “the.” Or possibly she squeezed in “..the home..” As the 1860 KW US Census shows only one household headed by a male Robins, this must be Mr. John A. Robins of Winchester. The Gilmer map shows a Johnson family living near the Robins Mill and Winchester near the Pamunkey River. He sent them to the Enrolling Officer. They presented their swords to Bill and Liv. – – I gave them dinners. They were very thankful and said that we had been treated shamefully. The children returned soon after they left. Col. McLaughlin and Camm were spending the evening. Ju and Stuart returned with them and spent the night. Ju slept on the lounge in the front chamber. We sat up till 2 o’clk. He gave us an interesting description of the Yanks spending a night at the W. H., &c.
Mr. Trymer came, calked the boat. Bill gave him $125 for a pair of oars and calking the boat, never heard of such a charge. The boys went out and caught 7 shad. – – Nan commenced her gardening operations. Let her have Bettie to assist her. – – The Yanks are still at the White House and raiding continues. Really, we are all the time in dread. I spend most of my time in the garden trying to dissipate from my mind what would occupy it too much if confined to the house. We do not sow or plant in much hope for I feel as if I sow for others to reap, but the sower only knows. I go to him for instruction and guidance continually, and pray that he may direct me in all my ways. – – Planted a square in early corn and early field peas today, also planted cymling seed.
Another stormy day. Bill went to see Mr. Trymer to get him to fix his boat. Promised him to come tomorrow.1There are several Trimmer or Trimyer families nearby which seem to have the tools and skills for boat repair. We cannot tell from today’s or tomorrow’s entry just who Bill has gone to see. When Caroline renders this family name she spells it Trymer. For these two entries her spelling will stand. However next year she will reference a family as Trymer that we know is usually spelled Trimmer or Trimyer. Her spelling will be changed accordingly. – – I made pickles of some watermelon rind Zac and the children out last summer for sweetmeats. The Yanks got all I had in the house. Bake’s finishing off two pair pants for Bill and Liv, or Zac one. – – I spent most of the day in the garden having some dirt pulled up to the roots of the vegetables. The wind had left many of them on the surface. – – I doubled and had the yarn twisted for two pair of socks for Liv. Pigeo and Nan commenced a pair a piece. He speaks of leaving Tuesday. Dellah gets on very well weaving flannel.
The wind has blown alarmingly today. Covers up some things deep in sand and others leaves naked. My peas, for instance, and onions are left almost on the surface. Onion hills are leveled and the onions left on the surface. – – Mrs. Lipscomb came today. Filled her jug with molasses left by the Yanks in one of the barrels. It was too thick for all to come out clean. I gave it to her, but she would leave $10 for it, said she could not receive it after looking upon what she had seen in my basement. Patsy’s hoeing up borders in the garden. Aunt Beckie has been laid up two days with her knee. Bill went in the boat with Bartlett to Walkerton Mill, carried 15 bushels corn.
A blustering day. Two soldiers came for breakfast. We gave them some. I’ve been employing myself in the garden having my strawberry square weeded and manured by Patsy. – – Dellah sowed beets and carrots. – – My potato plants are coming through prettily. – – Had Nannie’s garden hoed up by Patsy. She had a molasses stew after we had taken all out of the boiler and taken care of it. Fortunately for us, after boiling over a barrel of molasses, it was so thick we could not put in the barrel again and had to let it remain in the boiler. They did not touch that thinking it was lye or soap. – – Bill and Liv walked up to Ju’s after supper. Mr. R. Hill came today. – – Lieut. Haw sent orders to Bill by Mr. Madison. The boys started to Ju’s, but turned their course. – – I am all the time missing something the Yanks have taken. I am making discoveries of more disasters.
Another lovely day. – – Sent Scott to Ju’s to ascertain the truth of the threat made by Gen. Sheridan respecting burning all the dwellings in five miles of the C.H. – – Catesby Lewis came this evening to inform us that Gen. Thomas’ Army Cavalry, Infantry and Artillery had reached the Piping Tree and were about to cross.1If Gatsby Lewis did indeed tell Caroline that Union General George Henry Thomas was at Piping Tree, he certainly was in error. “The Rock of Chickamauga” was in Tennessee. More likely Caroline is noting the arrival of Brig. Gen. Thomas C. Devlin of Sheridan’s First Division to the banks of the Pamunkey. Of course we are hopeless, but try to be resigned to whatever our fate may be. We are trying to secure what little we can find that the Yanks overlooked, which was precious little, but for securing some things before hand we should have been left in a state of starvation. Thank the Lord we were admonished somewhat to prepare against them to some extent, and we will try and content ourselves and not murmur and look back to the flesh pots of Egypt. – – Planted a row of corn today.
A lovely, warm, calm and to all appearance, quiet day, but our troubled minds can find no peace. We all feel like hunted partridges. The boys came and got something to eat and leave for parts unknown immediately. Lieut. Baytop and Willie Catlett and George Booth came on their way to their fight, and Bill thought they were Yankees.1We have met Willie. But Lieut. James C. Baytop is a new visitor to Woodbury. He is a member of Company A, 5th Virginia Cavalry. About 40, he is from Gloucester, the home of Company A. The 1860 US Census records show him as a Deputy Sheriff. His marriage to “Joe” Lewis was mentioned on 22 December of last year. There also was a George Y. Booth from Gloucester attached to Company A of the 5th Virginia Cavalry who seems to have been captured at the end of the war. – – I can’t write any more, but imagine our painful situation. – – Borrowed the first shad we have had from Willie Edwards today. I enjoyed it very much. Planted sugar cane behind the smoke house.
The loveliest day we have had this year, so calm and beautiful. Bake and the children, with Parky and Martha, made some calls in the neighborhood. Heard many things, many of us can sympathize with each other. Mr. Henley, with a servant, came over to bring us something to eat. A nice piece of beef, a bushel of flour and a basket of potatoes. I appreciate his kindness very much. – – We had some meal brought in and loaned Mrs. Garrett ½ bushel. The children returned to dinner. Bartlett brought me an old ham he had found where the Yanks had laid aside, so had it boiled for dinner. – – There are many rumors about the Yankees, what they intend doing, &c. O! the horrors of such a life. – – The servants returned from the C.H. and brought with them several horses.
Thank God, we have been spared through the night and have only suffered from suspense and anxiety, i.e., we have not been molested by our enemies since dark. I have been quite sick nearly all night from long fasting and encountering so much. I was unequal to the task and had to give up and go to bed. Bake and the children sat up, or rather reclined, and dozed, overcome entirely. Dellah brought her baby and cradle in and Beck, Washington, Addison, Scott, besides the regular that sleep in the house, came in for protection. I was glad to see that they manifested such feelings. Patsy baked some ashcakes and sent in, but though all were hungry, no one could eat, she baked them out of her own meal, for the Yankees had taken all of mine that they could find. – – About ten o’clk. I walked to the barn to see how things were. Kept on to the quarters and found a few hungry individuals and sent back to the house for a plate of breakfast I put up this morning and delivered it to them. Met Washington on my return, who informed me that he had brought my two yoke of oxen back. It certainly rejoiced my heart. It was the only thing I had shed tears about. – – I gave the servants permission to go up and share in the spoil after the Yankees left, which was about 12 I think. They fired the woods in different directions. It presents an awful appearance. – – We hunted about till we found some little to satisfy the hungry ones. The children would pick up a herring here and there, and I found a beef shin left in one of the barrels and had some soup made for dinner. The boys came in a little before sunset and got something to eat. Two soldiers came by who had been hidden in the woods several days and I gave them something to eat of the scanty remains. It is painful to anyone just to walk in my store room, pantry and pantry closet to see how depraved human beings can be. I told the Yankees to help themselves to what they wanted to eat and not destroy what they did not want. They said they would not, but machine cotton, wheat chaff, molasses, broken carboys of vinegar and everything in one mess. I shall never be done finding out what I have lost. I found imported mustard of Hardie’s from England and they have found all my sperin and adament candles, but I will try and not grieve about it.1Suggestions about the meaning of the words “sperin” and “adamant” cheerfully accepted.
Another blustering day. Nan and I, with Martha, have been engaged this morning about some little important business. Willie and Riley were floating at the time. – – Tom transplanted some onion buttons. – – Bake had scalding done by Bettie. Patsy and Beck were hoeing behind the smokehouse for sugar cane, a little piece of ground to plant early, and I was in the garden and heard Patsy and Beck in stifled tones beckoning to me to come out of the garden, and O when I came, what was it to behold? Old Sheridan’s Army approaching the house from all points. The first came by the barn, broke open doors, filled bags with oats and came on to the house and entered it by different doors and commenced plundering. At the same time, others broke in the smoke house and fish house and stripped them of everything. Took every piece of bacon, all of two barrels beef, every shad and herring, except some two or three at the bottom of the barrels, my nice shad roe, all the flour and meal we had. Divided some of the things its true, but left a goodly portion of all. Then they entered the house and began their ravages. Then came the severest trial, but for our trusty servants I don’t know what might have been our fate. There was not a hole or corner from the basement to the rooms upstairs that was not ransacked and divested of everything valuable. some of my tea, dessert and table spoons I neglected to put out of sight, they got them all, as well as a good many knives and forks. Emptied two barrels molasses entirely, besides other smaller things. All my butter that was in plates and a three gallon jar filled last week of beautiful butter, as much lard as they could carry in every variety of tin. Milk pans and tin buckets, a two gallon strainer, a very large new cup I intended for Liv, some parts of my pyramid moulds and other things too numerous to mention. Eight skins of sausage, two moulds of souse, besides a head, all of my potatoes, a nice parcel of eating roots. Destroyed all my vinegar and broke the carboy, every bottle of wine for furnishing at Church, though I thought I had hid it very securely. All my preserves, a jar of mince meat and one of honey, and then took the jars and filled them with molasses and other things. Broke my two three gallon bowls, carboys and several other things, bottles innumerable, took and destroyed soap, candles and all of our oats, both for sales and seed, and as much corn as they wanted after feeding all my hogs. Tore up window curtains, towels, some of the servant’s clothes, to put up shad, herring &c. Filled pitchers with roe, molasses &c, two beautiful brown pitchers, a white one and three blue ones, tomato catsup, meat jelly, green tomato preserves, and various others things too numerous to mention. I cannot commit to speak of a large milk cooler of most superior coffee and several bottles of tea, loaf sugar, some of the cruets out of the casters filled with pepper, candles, two jars pickles, some of Bill’s clothes, a pair of nice uniform pants and shirts, collars, &c. Some of the most beautiful briskets and rounds of beef put up for summer use, besides some three or four tongues. We can’t tell the extent of our loss, but I feel thankful they did not burn the house, after some threats they made. Two barrels molasses.
The most blustering weather, although I am trying to have some work done in the garden. Planted early mercer potatoes by Patsy, Beck, Martha and Bettie. I ventured to put the hands to sowing oats, though it’s so windy. Bill has been away all day. – – Returned to supper and left immediately after. Transplanted some potatoes, onions today.
Fine weather for work, except being windy, but no farming operations going on. It would be rather hazardous. Tom hoed my asparagus bed and I sowed the middle in kale, also sowed my plant bed. Bettie weeded the onions. – – Mr. Thornton and Hill came by on their way from King and Queen.1Mr. Thornton and Hill from King & Queen are unidentified. All quiet over there.
A most beautiful day. Had the garden ploughed by Bartlett and sowed peas this evening, the row and a piece next to the river Rose gave me. The next, Mrs. Claiborne Hill gave me, the next Hal brought me from her Grandma, and the next mine. – – James King came this morning. – – Bill walked to the C.H. at dark and returned in company with Mr. Hill. I sent Frank to Ju’s for some onions and cabbage seed. He wrote a note back by him rather startling in its character.
A lovely day. Bill rode Shakespeare to Col. King to try to get a horse, gave him money, $2900. – – Liv fixed my spinning wheel and prevented it casting band. – – Elmore came for six barrels corn. Brought sad news for us. Bill went to ascertain the facts in relation. After counting out one hundred, which became minus 7 by the operation, Liv attended to the removal of another article. We are all in a great deal of trouble.1Elmore, probably a slave, appears only this once in the Journal. If any of our readers have any suggestions about the nature of the trouble mention by Caroline, please share. I sent Tom and Buck after an early breakfast with a nice piece of beef to Rose and to request her to give me some peas to sow. She sent me enough for a row and more, and carrots to transplant for seed, also some apples. – – Dellah is making Liv’s shirts. – – Willie Edwards came about dark and frightened us right much.2“Willie” could have been William D. Edwards of Cherry Grove, about 34. On light duty with the reserves, he had lost his left arm at the Battle of Yellow Tavern the previous year. Or it could have been William Butler Edwards, about 15, of Clover Plains.
Pretty day overhead, but the roads too bad to venture to Zion. Sent the basket by Bartlett. He returned with it while we were at dinner.1The basket certainly contained the Emblems, the bread and wine used for communion at Zion, as we noted 24 July. We all spent the day at home till after dinner. Bill attended a night meeting at Canton. Had one addition (little H. B. Lipscomb).2This is likely Hunter Lipscomb, son of Sterling Brett Lipscomb and wife Angelina Ellett who lived at Mt. Hope, the old Lewis Littlepage homeplace. He would have been about 13. Bill returned about 12, I believe. Heard the Rangers had all been captured. The wind blew a perfect hurricane all night. That, with thoughts on poor Zac’s fate, kept me awake the rest of the night. – – Pigeo’s complaining still with cold and fever. Has slept with me the last two nights, and Bake and Nan upstairs. – – Gave Iverson some medicine tonight. He is suffering with cold and fever. – – The servants had quite a considerable company today. I assisted them a little in accommodating them.
Quite a pretty day, after a freeze last night. Had to have my potato bed covered with straw. – – We agreed to lend ten barrels corn to the Government. The gentlemen left after breakfast. Mr. White came for a part of the corn we sold Mr. Davis, delivered him 40 bushels.1Even though Mr. Davis has appeared in the Journal before in the same role, and will again, we still do not know which Mr. Davis this is. – – Mrs. Hill sent for five bushels oats @ $40 pr. bushel. – – Ju spent the day. He and I had a settlement, i.e., I looked in his acct. – – I settled Beck’s hire for six or seven months last year, also gave him $35 in Va. money for the $5 I borrowed in greenbacks last year. – – Cut out two shirts for Liv, Va. Cloth. – – Dellah commenced about making them. – – Pigeo has been quite sick all day. Bake and Nan walked to see Mrs. Lipscomb this evening.
A close rainy morning. No one could attend church. – – Gave the servants the day. The children and I observed the day, manner prescribed till evening. Liv said he thought he had fasted long enough.1Would this be Good Friday? UPDATE: Evidently Easter will be April 16th in 1865. This may be a good time to note that Zion church members, soon to be self-described as Christadelphians, may not have observed Christian holy days as did other denominations. Perhaps this is a proclaimed Confederate day of fasting. You Civil War scholars out there help us out. UPDATE #2: Yes, this was a Confederate national day of fasting and prayer. Thanks Jenny! – – The gentleman left to return to see Bill. They accordingly came about 5 to spend another night and to ascertain about the corn. I wished to consult Bill about it. He arrived to supper.
A tolerably good day. I went with Bill in the store room & measured out the molasses for the government, had to sell the barrel with it at $40, not paid for though. Bill went up with Jim & from there to Lieut. Haws & to old Capt. Timberlake’s to try & get a horse. – – Ju came down this evening. I loaned him $1200. Sent Ju some beef by Jim when he carried up the government tythe. Bill did not return tonight. Accompanying Capt. Henry & Mr. Thomson.1Confederate war records show a Captain James H. Henry, a member of Thomas H. Carter’s Light Artillery Company. Henry enrolled in the summer of 1861 at Bond’s Store near Rumford Academy. The KW 1860 US Census lists a James H. Henry, a clerk about 40. Probably not coincidently, the James H. Henry who enlisted at Bond’s store was soon recorded as a sergeant and clerk. He was detailed almost immediately to Richmond as a clerk. In 1863 he appears as a Corporal on the Muster Rolls of a Local Defense (Home Guard) company comprised of War Department clerks. In late 1864 he leaves the War Department and in mid-January, 1865 requests an honorable discharge. Later he reports that he has accepted “another position.” 2There is a Geo. W. Thompson listed in the 1860 KW US Census. A native of Caroline County, he would be about 47, a farmer probably living in the Rumford area. Past the usual age of conscription, he is listed in Lieut. Haw’s Ledger as being conscripted in 1864 for “Light Duty” because of “Private Necessity.” Came to spend the night, & to beg or borrow corn for Lee’s army. – – Salted the beef by candlelight & tyed the tallow after supper. – – Sent Will’s carboy with three gallons of syrup as a present.3This entire entry was missing from the transcript, one of the transcriber’s rare oversights.
To the astonishment of us all, we have a rainy day. Notwithstanding, I had my potato bed fixed and about three bushels potatoes put in and Liv assisted Bill about it. – – Jake White came for twenty bushels oats for his father, @ $40 pr. bushel, paid $800.1This is likely the “Jack” White who visited 27 February with Hal. He would have a namesake son who was called Jake as well. – – Liv arrived from Ju’s this morning. Find by the papers that he has been exchanged and required to report for duty very soon. I think it is really hard that he has been so long confined in prison and now debarred the privilege of recovering at home till his furlough is out. – – Poor fellow. He certainly needs some time for recovering, as his health and spirits are not very good. – – He and Bill cut out the beef today. Sowed three bushels oats today, making 20 bushels.
Another beautiful day. Sowed six bushels oats today, making seventeen in all. Three double ploughs pulling them. Jim’s fallowing for corn with the steers. – – Bill and Liv walked to the C.H. I contributed for the soldiers, six barrels corn, fifty pounds bacon and fifty pounds corn beef. Persons contributed right liberally. I went in the garden this evening and sowed my hot bed. The 2nd row on each in Early Dock cabbage, the outside row next palings tomatoes, one half red and the other yellow, the end next orchard red. The middle row lettuce, the other outside row radish. – – Nearly finished my dress today. Parky washed and Dellah made a chemise for Beck. Bill came this evening and brought some letters for Bake. Liv remained at Ju’s.
Another pretty day. Commenced sowing oats today. Put in eleven bushels. I walked with Bill and Liv to look at the winter oats seeded last fall to decide whether or not we would resow them. They are injured very much by the hard winter. Will sow them over and drag them in. – – Finished weaving my dress and cut it out this evening and made the skirt tonight. Liv and I sat up till half-past eleven. Bill retired early. – – Cut out a pair of drawers for Liv this morning before breakfast and Parky made them today. Dellah made a chemise for Patsy. The children apply themselves right much with their studies.
We have a prospect now for good weather and I am happy to see it. Bill left on Duroc after breakfast. Attended the baptizing at the Mill by Dr. Phil, four persons immersed.1This is likely Mill’s Mill mentioned 28 August last year. The rest of us, including Liv, went in the wagon to Zion, Washington drove. We returned by Ju’s and staid a short time and came to dinner. – – We all sat around our little stand and sang some beautiful hymns tonight.
Well, thank the Lord Liv has reached home at last, after 20 long and dreary months in a Yankee prison. Walked from Richmond yesterday and staid at the Piping Tree last night, and rode a horse of cousin William Turner’s down today. Arrived just before dinner. Poor fellow shows the effects of Yankee treatment. Is quite thin, looks haggard and care worn from the privation and hardships he has undergone while in their hands. We were all so delighted to see him and welcome him once more to his home, and if the love and affection of fond brothers and sisters and all that I can do will again restore him to his usual vivacity, nothing will be lacking on our part. He tried on a handsome coat, a present from Hardie, and it fits him beautifully. Also two pair of shoes from the same. Bill and the children hardly know how to express their joy. He brought a present a piece for the children and myself from Point Lookout, a beautiful ring a piece for Bake, Pigeo and Nannie, and his miniature in a heart pin for me. I prize it so much.1It was common for Civil War prisoners to carve rings, pipes, religious, and other small items in their “spare time.” Considered by many “folk art” today, they were carved from anything handy – wood, bone, metal. These items were sometime used as trade goods with guards and well as the use noted by Caroline. Examples of these carved items can be found in museums and auction houses today. This pastime has probably been around as long as there have been prisoners. My heart overflows with gratitude and love to my Father for the blessings and mercies his all bountiful hand showers upon one so undeserving of the least of them. – – Bill has been endeavoring today to have the garden enclosure prepared. It has cleared up this evening after a tremendous rain in the forenoon and it’s fine to have some good weather. – – I wove over a yard on my dress today. Bake sat in the weaving room with me till Liv came.