Friday, 31st August, 1866

Fine seasonable weather. Patsy cooked breakfast and Martha dinner. The former got supper and milked. Clarissa pulled fodder for John Lewis. Chicken pie for dinner. Starched some things and Martha ironed them. We are very busy getting Zac ready for Lexington, getting his things all together two pillow cases, clothes bag, his shirts, sock and collars are as far as they are made and ready. Two pair sheets, six towels, nearly ready, and it seems to me that I am forever on my feet and when night comes I am like a floundered horse. Never know how tired I am till I am still. Pigeo’s right busy today sewing on Zac’s shirts. Nan’s in bed most of the day. Right much emaciated and very feeble.

Thursday, 30th August, 1866

I arose quite early and had breakfast by candlelight in order for Liv to take some hot coffee before starting. Will ride Fannie and go with Jim to the mill. He will take the wheat in the oxcart. It weighed 756 lbs., including bags. They returned about 3 o’clk. Left the wheat to be ground by Saturday. The water is quite low in the pond. “Robins Mill” Liv returned by Mr. Cooke’s and brought some muskmelons and watermelons. – – Pigeo’s making an underbody. – – Nan has been complaining all day and looks very badly. – – I cut out two more shirts for Zac today and finished up one I cut out the other day. – – Col. spent the morning. – – Jim sick this evening. Bill came from Ju’s this evening. Improves in looks and appetite very much. He is anxious to go to Richmond.

Wednesday, 29th August, 1866

The weather continues seasonable and fine. The fallowing is going on by Jim, Washington and Addison, but I can’t say how fast it progresses, as they are all alone to themselves. I walked to the quarters about eleven. Saw Dandridge there. Let him have some oats for his mule. He came in to the house and dug a bushel potatoes, 56 lbs., which he will take to Richmond and sell for me. – – Harriett came for more cotton for socks, brought one pair. Mag sent a note by Horace requesting me to send her some potatoes, peas, &c for tomorrow, and an invitation to dine. The Col.’s family will dine there. Nan had a chill today. – – Mr. Cooke came and brought me a nice parcel muskmelons. Jimmie Spiller spent the day. They all, Liv, Zac and Jimmie, went shooting sora, only killed 9. – – Liv had 12 bushels wheat fanned up and put in bags to carry to Mill tomorrow. – – Gave Nan blue mass.

Tuesday, 28th August, 1866

A rainy, fine morning. Sold Dandridge ½ doz. chickens @ 30 cts. a piece and ½ bushel meal @.$2.40 pr. bushel. Capt. Bramble came up about eleven. Landed the goods we sent to Baltimore for, one keg Lager beer, 50 lbs. sugar, 25 lbs. coffee, 2 gallons whiskey, one piece bleached domestic and one sack fine salt, which they carelessly allowed the tide to rise over to some extent, and I am afraid has injured it. Jim came from the field to get his dinner and brought it to the house. The rest of the things Tom brought when they were landed. – – Patsy ironed part of the clothes in the back chamber. Jim brought a load of wood this morning and the three, himself, Washington and Addison, fallowed the rest of the day. – – I had quite a late dinner today and no supper. Bill’s still at Ju’s.

Monday, 27th August, 1866

Zac went to Canton this morning to carry a note to Mr. Slaughter respecting bacon and requesting him to purchase for me in Richmond 2 pair Monroe shoes for Zac, two pair Berlen gloves and two bottles “Osgood’s Indian Cholagogue” to cure Ague and fever.1 – – Bill rode Shakespeare to the C. H. Zac walked up after dinner to bring him back. He will remain a few days with Ju. – – Zac informed me that Mr. Dunn’s Case had been referred and decided we are to pay him $70 for his horse being gored by an animal of ours, and I think if the facts in the case were understood, the fault was as much in his part as ours. I’ve understood that all were in Enfield together and his little son in driving them all out, carried ours along with them and the accident occurred.

  1. Dr. Osgood’s India Cholagogue, manufactured by C.H. and F.L. Osgood of Norwich, Connecticut, was touted a cure for “Fever and Ague, Dumb Ague, Chill Fever, Intermittent Fever and the Various forms of Bilious Diseases.”  The product, “Never Known to Fail,” was “Designed especially for those affections of the Liver and other internal organs, which attend the diseases of bilious climates.” Those suffering from such diseases were told that India Cholagogue was “an invaluable remedy for purifying the blood” and “promoting the discharge of bile…”  Further, the inhabitants of “bilious climates or persons traveling through infected districts of country” were guaranteed “to find the Cholagogue an invariable and absolute preventive.” Each bottle was said to have been accompanied by a pamphlet on the “causes, treatment and cure” with complete directions for taking the remedy. Note: This description and photograph were taken (without permission) from http://odysseysvirtualmuseum.com. This bottle was recovered from the SS Republic, a Civil War-era sidewheel steamship which sank during a hurricane in October 1865 while en route from New York to New Orleans with a cargo meant to help rebuild the city after the Civil War. More information HERE.  (back)

Sunday, 26th August, 1866

Quite a pretty day. Zac and I went in the buggy to Church, the rest except Liv remained at home. He went to Acquinton and dined at Hill’s. Ju sent a message to Bill to come up and spend a few days with him. He will go up tomorrow. I think a change of pace will be much to his advantage. He improves and with the exception of his mouth would be right smart. – – He walked over to the field to see and count his hogs late this evening. Has 34 pigs and a pretty parcel killing hogs. We all returned to dinner and spent the evening at home. Liv came to supper. – – Patsy attended a funeral at Enfield and I had dinner with the assistance of Addison.

Saturday, 25th August, 1866

Pleasant day. I arose early as usual this morning and had breakfast ready at sunrise in order to attend to the sick ones before going to Canton, where Zac will accompany me to transact some little business. Carried a middling and ham of bacon weighing 26 lbs. by my balances, but only 20 lbs. by Mr. Slaughter’s. He must have made a mistake, or I cannot account for it. Purchased 50 lbs. sugar @ 13 cts., and oz. quinine @ $4, and some other little things. Found Nannie Lewis and Mr. Cooke here on my return. They left before dinner. Zac went to Walkerton Mill. Got me an oz. Peruvian bark. Mr. H. Acree returned with him and both went in the boat to Mr. Henley’s to call on some young ladies. – – The sick ones, Bill, Liv and Pigeo, improve slowly. The two former walked to the potato patch today, a nice parcel potatoes. They are getting very fine.

Friday, 24th August, 1866

The weather very pleasant. My patients are doing as well as they could expect. Bill was in the dining room before breakfast, sat at table and drank some buttermilk. He is too impatient to get well, it makes against him. I persuaded him to go to his room and about ten gave him 20 drops laudanum. He was drowsy and slept a good deal during the day. – – Patsy and Martha planted the rutabaga turnips over this morning, and this evening ridged down the few rows they did not plough up. – – Tom came from Richmond this evening and brought letters from Mary and Bake. The latter writes from New York where the Lieut. and herself are remaining several days purchasing his goods. She seems to be in a great deal of trouble on account of his being sick. – – They are anxious that Bill should meet them in Baltimore. If he cannot do so, send letters of introduction to some houses in Baltimore where he may purchase goods. – – Liv staid with Mr. Cooke last night. Both had chills and took medicine. Sent to Ju’s, rec. 50 grains quinine, on acct. of Liv.

Thursday, 23rd August, 1866

Pleasant weather. Zac went to the field and returned to breakfast after we had finished. – – Bill seems to be doing very well this morning, and gave him quinine and another dose of Jalap and Rhubarb. – – Jimmie Spiller came to spend the day with Zac. Went to the field to find him. – – Liv went to a sale in King and Queen, Mr. McLelland.1 – – Bill became a little low spirited this evening and insisted on sending for Dr. Ju. Jimmie Spiller said he would call and see him and request him to come down. He arrived while we are at supper. Gave Bill a pill and said he thought he was in a very good condition. His mouth was becoming quite sore and it made him very impatient. – – I gave Pigeo two pills, blue mass, and made up about 25 or 30 grains of quinine into pills for her to take in the morning. Washington had a chill also. – – He ploughed the turnip patch this morning to replant them as they came up so scattering. – – I cut out a shirt for Zac today, but I don’t know it’s possible I can do any sewing when I can’t find time to sit down a minute at a time during the day scarcely.

  1. We first were introduced to the McLelland family of King and Queen County back on 9 January, ’65 through Evelyn [Quarles] McLelland, wife of Benjamin Whatcoat McLelland, eldest son of Rev. Hezakiah McLelland, Methodist. More recently, on 1 May of this year, we met in a footnote Martha Cole [McLelland} Shackford, wife of Methodist minister Rev. John William Shackford. Martha, at this point, is the only surviving daughter of Hezakiah. Of the three sons of Hezakiah mentioned in the 9 January footnote, only Benjamin would survive the war. The youngest, Enoch George McLelland, who had moved to Alabama, died 14 May, 1864 at the Battle of Resaca, Georgia. Thomas Coke McLelland, who like brother Benjamin was a POW, ended up in a different camp and died of typhoid. As Thomas and Liv had been in that same camp, Point Lookout, and Liv attended the sale, it is likely this event was held at the farm of this McLelland, for the benefit of his wife Elizabeth (Betty) [Saunders] McLelland and their four children. The Bulletin of the King & Queen Historical Society, July 1977, devotes the entire issue to Rev. Hezakiah McLelland. While his children are mentioned briefly, and some of the information about them is in error, it is a good introduction to the family and Methodism in the County.  (back)

Wednesday, 22nd August, 1866

Quite a pretty day. Pigeo got ready about ten to attend the singing at Acquinton. Mr. Cooke, by promise, accompanied her on horseback. I made some cake. Had a chicken boiled and gave them a nice snack to carry. – – Zac and Nan went in the buggy and drove Shakespeare. All returned at twilight, i.e. Pigeo, Messrs. Cooke and Walker, Zac and Nan sometime after. Pigeo had a chill and high fever and her horse became unmanageable, and she came very near being thrown. Ran some distance with her before she was able to take him up. She will ride a wild horse and I am afraid something serious will happen to her one of these times. Children are so headlong and headstrong nowadays. – – Bill has been much better today under the treatment, but had a slight rise of fever this evening and I thought it best to give him another dose of Calomel tonight. His tongue is foul withall. Gave him Jalap and Rhubarb this morning, and quinine till two o’clk. – – Jim, Washington and Addison are fallowing today. Liv returned to dinner from Mt. Hope. – – Came across those refunding bonds yesterday evening from Dugar’s Estate.1

  1. A refunding bond is issued for the purpose of retiring an outstanding bond. They are issued to reduce financing costs during periods of declining interest rates, eliminate covenants, and alter maturities.  (back)

Tuesday, 21st August, 1866

The weather pleasant. Very much like fall. I have so much to employ me. Every morning it’s ten o’clk. before I have time to sit down. I was in the garden reading my Bible when the Col. came about that time. He spent an hour or so. He and I had a settlement. – – I owed him ten dollars to close with. He left before dinner. Would see Pigeo and Nan before leaving. Told them if they had not come out and were too sick, he should have gone in their chamber. He wished to be considered as one of the family. – – Bill is very complaining today. Gave him Calomel tonight. – – Mr. Cooke came late this evening to escort Pigeo on horseback to Mr. Hope to call on Lu. They returned about eleven and he went on home. Zac was anxious to have gone, but I persuaded him that it would be very bad to ride a horse at night that had been ploughing all day. He became reconciled. He and I sat up late and had a long talk in the front porch on different subjects.

Monday, 20th August, 1866

A quantity of rain during the night. Hope Bill will be able to commence fallowing for wheat. – – Had some apples peeled and cut off this morning, Mr. Cooke was kind enough to give me. Patsy peeled and Pigeo and Nan assisted some. I cut them off. – – Bill and Liv went fishing this morning. Zac went to the barn and got out an ox chain to pull the weeds down in fallowing. He started Jim and Washington at it. – – Patsy chopped some weeds in the garden after dinner. About sunset Miss Henley and the two Mr. Walkers, Melville and William, came on a boat and spent several hours. Left some time after supper. – – Liv dined at Enfield. Bill rode to Acquinton and returned to Enfield, and both returned after dark. – – Got 3 lbs. sugar at 18¾ cts. – – Liv retired as soon as he came. Bill made a light supper. He has been complaining all day, and I think is very impudent. The company left at eleven. Loaned Jennie a wadded cape, such a heavy dew is falling. – – Commenced fallowing today.

Sunday, 19th August, 1866

Pleasant and cool today. I am disappointed in not being able to go to Church. Pigeo and Nan are complaining too much to go. Zac went to Acquinton and returned to dinner. Liv dined at Ju’s and returned to supper. – – Had a terrible rain this evening. I spent the day reading the Bible pretty much. I get very sad sometimes when I allow myself to think and contrast the present with the past. Think a great deal of Bake and Hardie, and often wish them with me to comfort the many cheerless hours I spend.

Saturday, 18th August, 1866

Still cool, but not so cool as yesterday was. Liv went to look for squirrels again before breakfast, but was unsuccessful. Bill left after breakfast for W. Braxton’s in Hanover to see him respecting “Meredith’s suit”1 Sent Jim and Washington to Enfield for apples with a bag a piece, early this morning. They have the day. – – Put out a few tomatoes today. Logan Turner spent the day. He and Zac started away together, the latter on Shakespeare, to Acquinton Church to the singing. Returned some time in the night. He and Liv went fishing in the morning. I wish they could employ their time better. It is of the utmost importance that they should. Bill returned from Hanover after we had retired. Dr. Braxton gave him all the information he could and will be over and bring the papers next week, I think Bill said, or rather about the 10th of September.

  1. This is William Priestly Braxton, MD, of Oak Spring in King William. He would be about 49 in 1865. He married Virginia Coalter of Hanover County in 1855. They had one son and three daughters. He would move his family to Hanover County where he would remain until his death in 1881. He was a great-grandson of Carter Braxton.  (back)

Friday, 17th August, 1866

Cool enough for fire half the day. – – Patsy washed two bags of wool, one weighed 20 and the other 15 lbs. Then got dinner and cut down weeds in the yard in the evening. Jim brought a load of wood in the morning and Addison cut some for the stove and chamber. – – Martha cleaned four candlesticks. Bill rode to see some persons to try and ascertain something in relations to the old Meredith’s suit and hire of slaves, returned to dinner. – – Liv killed 3 squirrels before breakfast. – – Jack Cooke came about sunset and staid till eleven. All the children played and sung in the parlor till that time. I left the room before they did and retired after taking a dose of spt. turpentine. Nan has had a crick in her neck all day.

Thursday, 16th August, 1866

Quite cool this morning. Mr. Grubbs left after breakfast. – – I am feeling very unwell this morning. Sick enough to be in bed. Susannah came and assisted Jim in making a cowpen at the gate. Gave her breakfast and she returned home. – – Pigeo remained in bed all day. – – Patsy finished digging potatoes yesterday, a poor turn out of indifferent potatoes. She weeded today. “Good old critter, as ever was born.” I am really sick today.

Wednesday, 15th August, 1866

The weather quite warm again. Pigeo is much better since the action of medicine. She is in bed all day tho’ Zac went to work on the carriage again this morning before starting to the singing school. Bill dug some potatoes for dinner. I doubled cotton for Martha to twist. Wrote three letters to send by Tom to Rich., one to Mary, Hardie and Bake. I enclosed Sallie Wright’s letter to Bake also. He started after dinner. Liv’s gone to Walkerton Mill fishing. Hauling oats today, finished. Zac returned to supper and Mr. Grubbs with him to spend the night. Will go to his Rappahannock school in the morning.1 Pigeo nor Nan, neither went out. The latter complained of toothache and Pigeo has not left her bed. All retired early. Liv returned to supper.

Memorandum of Nannie’s Things For School at “Piedmont,” Feb. 18672

Five winter dresses, scarlet, figured and pink muslin, silk calico and Alpaca

  1. Mr. Grubbs may be associated with the well-known Rappahannock Academy in Caroline County. However I have been unable to confirm a connection, or, for that matter, learn anything about Mr. Grubbs. More research, and luck, is needed.  (back)
  2. Note: Caroline evidently wrote this on an open place in the journal well after this  day’s entry.  (back)
  3. The used of the term Swiss here would suggest a sleeveless summer dress.  (back)
  4. It is unclear whether Caroline means a balmoral bonnet or a pattern.  (back)
  5. Probably Caroline means a woman’s full loose hip length jacket.  (back)
  6. As Caroline mentions the Swiss bodies – bodice? – here she likely means a sleeveless undergarment.  (back)
  7. Does Caroline mean pearl?  (back)
  8. Telmaque Reader is likely a French language volume based on this.  (back)

Tuesday, 14th August, 1866

A little showery today. Patsy washed. Tom got dinner. Nan and Pigeo peeled a few apples this morning. The former and I went in the parlor before sunrise and attended to a little matter. – – Zac improved the looks of the carriage very much today by oiling and blacking. Pigeo had another chill I think, but was not aware of it when she took about 15 grains quinine, which almost crazed her. – – Nan’s stitching a band for a chemise. – – Harriet came for some bacon. Someone had stolen the shoulder we sold John the other day. Bought some chub she brought. – – Liv fixed his bridle. – – Hauled a few more oats today. – – I sent a message to Maj. Butts by Liv respecting John, who has become so helpless and blind. He promised to write to the Freedmen’s Bureau immediately and ascertain what could be done for him.1 Gave Pigeo calomel and jalap tonight, after broken doses tartar.

  1. Lt. Chance, mentioned several times last April and May, was replaced in early summer at the KW Freedmen’s Bureau by New Yorker Major Frank A. Butts, 22. Butts had served in the 47th New York Infantry along side his father, the regiment’s Chaplain. Butts would prove a popular officer among King William’s white citizens. Among King William’s former slaves, not so much.  (back)

Monday, 13th August, 1866

Quite pleasant. Made some apple pies this morning and sent Mr. Cooke a couple of them, a plate of butter and some loaf bread, by Tom and at the same time sent for a bag of apples today. – – Bill rode to Ju’s after dinner. He gave him something to wash his mouth in. I sent Stuart two fine potatoes. Hauled a few oats today. Zac went over to help load the wagon. Jim is sick and Washington drove the wagon. Had the carriage put in the yard for Zac to oil and fix up tomorrow. – – Clarissa milked this evening. She has been sick a fortnight. Pigeo is very little wasted from her chill. – – Gave her my brown borage today. Bill wrote to Balto. for some Pennsylvania wheat today, 75 bushels. Liv and Mr. Cooke went fishing at the mill, returned to supper.

Sunday 12th August, 1866

Quite a pleasant day. Zac hitched the carriage and we all started to Church, but when we got to the Sandy Hill, George refused to go up and after many spritely attempts to persuade or compel him, as it was late, I left the children, Pigeo, Nan and himself with instructions to go on to Church if they could get up the hill, and at the same time got Bill to send there and assist in getting the carriage along. They got off after sometime and got to Church after preaching commenced. I returned to dinner in good time. Had sweet potatoes today, but they are suffering very much for rain. Patsy cooked dinner and supper. Martha and Clarissa spent the morning at Enfield. Bill improves slowly. Paddled the boat down to Mr. Henley’s this morning to inform him that his hogs were destroying the corn in quantities. Pigeo had a chill after supper.

Saturday, 11th August, 1866

The weather is very pleasant today. Finished the last load of wheat this morning and machined the rest of the day and finished the wheat. Sold some bacon to Susannah and John Banks, 4 lbs. to the former and 12½ lbs. to Banks, meal to himself and Jim. Discharged all the hired hands this afternoon.

Friday, 10th August, 1866

Another pleasant morning. Zac walked over the cornfield and found the Henley’s hogs were destroying a great deal of corn.1  He returned to breakfast at eleven o’clk. Seven additional hands today. Humphrey has gone to Rich. hauling wheat again today with the intention of machining tomorrow. – – Bill improves slowly. His mouth is very bad. He helped me to examine some papers this morning appertaining to those two perplexing “Estates,” Meredith’s and Dugar’s. I could wish they had never died if it had been the Lord’s will. O! how great are my trials here, will not a day of rest soon dawn for me? I eagerly desire it and earnestly pray for it. – – I got Tom to go over to Mr. Cooke’s this morning for some apples. He brought me a nice bag of them. Liv and Zac seem to enjoy the bathing very much of evenings. Liv went fishing this afternoon, or rather went before dinner and returned in the afternoon.

  1. We might note that the Henley farm is Hillsborough, across the Mattiponi. Pigs might not fly, but they can swim.  (back)

Thursday, 9th August, 1866

No rain last night as I expected and quite a high wind today and withall very dry. Terrible on the corn, it must be cut short a great deal. Tom returned from Rich. and brought a letter to Pigeo from Mary. I’ve been expecting a letter from Bake for some time. I think Mary might have written me a line. I should have written to her, if I had known of anything of Tom’s intention of returning, if he had given me timely warning before startling to Rich. Hands are hauling wheat today. I believe 8 additional to our force. Bill walked downstairs today and late this evening he walked to the barn. Washington brought a wagon load of husks to the brick porch door after making his last load of wheat.

Wednesday, 8th August, 1866

Quite a day. Liv and Zac are at the machine and got on very well. They, Humphrey and five hands are here, in addition to Susannah and John. Martha cooked dinner today for Patsy to be at the machine. Dr. Ju came to see Bill this evening. Thinks him well enough to discontinue his visits. He brought the flour home I loaned him. Teased Pigeo and Nan a good deal and prescribed a blue pill for Pigeo. – – Jack Cooke came to see Bill soon after breakfast and staid till late in the evening, and was kind enough to offer his services as a good nurse if I should need him. Promised me as many apples as I wanted if I would send for them. He will be a very kind neighbor, I think. Nan ironed some things this evening that I starched this morning. Bob finished sowing the plaster today.

Tuesday, 7th August, 1866

A fine morning, very pleasant and a very great pity that Bill can’t be up to attend to his business. Liv and Zac are at the barn, where the servants are hauling wheat. Humphrey with some hands came to assist in threshing, but we shall not thresh till tomorrow. We hired ½ doz. of them to fix the fence round the wheat patch to turn the hogs in. We have the same five about the wheat we had yesterday. The hogs are so troublesome since we put them in pens, rooting potatoes and doing everything in their line of mischief. – – Dr. Ju came after dinner to see Bill this evening. – – Washington was taken with a notion to leave because Zac spoke to them. – – He came to see me with his trunk in hand. I asked him if he was sick again. He said no. I asked him what he was going to do with his trunk. He said nothing now and went on.

Monday, 6th August, 1866

Liv returned to breakfast. Zac had gone to the barn to have the machine put down, though very unwell. Liv went there and I believe he retired from it and laid down. – – Sent Dandridge for Dr. Ju to see Bill. He came about ten and after prescribing, walked to the barn to see how the machine worked, having a new set of hands. There was necessarily some confusion. – – Tom left for Mary’s this morning. I should have hired him, but for his returning there. Nan trimmed her hat this morning, that was sent down from Rich. a few days ago, and Zac brought from Ju’s yesterday. Pigeo gave hers an overhauling. – – Ju left ½ past eleven. Gave Bill medicine every hour. – – I walked to the barn to come by the potato patch and was mortified to see how the hogs had rooted it up.

Sunday, 5th August, 1866

A very pleasant morning. Almira and Gus left for protracted meeting at Acquinton, and Pigeo and Zac for Zion. I remained at home on acct. of Bill’s sickness, and Nan for another reason. Bill and Pigeo returned to dinner, both having had a chill, or rather chills. Nan and I took a walk to the quarters to see Clarissa, and to the spring to have some watermelons put in the spring box that Liv gathered before leaving for Ju’s, where he took dinner and will spend the night. – – We encountered a Capt. of a vessel that was anchored out in front of the house and one of his men enquiring about grain. Bill remained in bed all day. Zac slept in the passage, Pigeo and Nan in the front chamber, and I in the back chamber.

Saturday, 4th August, 1866

A very pleasant morning. Bill was taken with a chill soon after breakfast and went to bed and remained all day. Hauled wheat yesterday and today. The two Mr. Walkers left about 3 or 4 o’clk. They had to wait for the tide, as they • came in a boat. – – Liv killed a doz. birds and Martha picked them and got dinner. – – Tom is folding the potato vines this morning. – – Jim had meat for four weeks from this time. Gus Hill and Almira drove up about 6 o’clk. to spend the night.1

  1. Oh, the difference a comma would make. I will wait until looking at the original text at the VHS before trying to determine if two or three people spent the evening at Woodbury. I suspect who we have here are frequent visitors Beverley (Bev) Littlepage and James (Hill) King. Further, I suspect Alveria is Elvira, as in Miss Elvira Garrett. There don’t seem to be any likely Alverias in the neighborhood. However, Caroline does spell Miss Garrett’s name correctly in other entries. A puzzlement. CORRECTION: We needed more than a comma. This is brother and sister Gus and Almira Hill; they have visited Woodbury before.  (back)