Thursday, 30 June, 1864

Much warmer today than yesterday. The corn begins to rally a little since the rain. We begin to breath free air once more, but don’t know how long we may be permitted to do so. – – I finished off my black organdy dress today, except sewing on the body. – – Parky cooked dinner. Dellah picked out some of yesterday’s work and did it over. Jim’s shirt was not half made. Beck came home from Ju’s before dinner.

Wednesday, 29 June, 1864

The morning is so cool and pleasant since the rain and hail. I proposed to Zac to drive me in the buggy to Hill’s to spend the day. Met Ju on the way as we went up. The old Col. came over in the evening and promised to accompany Mag down on a fishing excursion on Friday.1 – – We returned after supper from Hill’s and Bake had a nice dish of perch Bill had caught for supper. I trust the Yankees have paid their last visit to the W. House, though it is reported this evening that a gunboat came up in sight today.

  1. The transcription shows Meg; it is Mag.  (back)

Tuesday, 28 June, 1864

A very great change in the weather since the rain. Fires and overcoats are comfortable. – – Sent Beck up early this morning to work and iron today and tomorrow for Ju. – – Sent Martha up with a basket of nice loaf bread, corn and cucumbers to them this evening. – – Gave the men the day to cut wheat or do anything else they pleased for themselves. Frederick and Washington cut at Brett Lipscomb’s for $25.1 – – Bill convalescent, but his health is not good. He and Zac caught some nice perch this evening.

  1. Probably Sterling B. “Brett” Lipscomb, who lived close by.  (back)

Monday, 27 June, 1864

Quite a pleasant morning to be so dry, it is distressingly so. Uncle Bartlett carried 15 bushels corn to Mill this morning.1 Gave Bill quinine and stopped his chills. – – Zac rode Duroc to try and get a saddle. He has instead returned with a second-hand one _?_ at $150. – – I cut out and made Stuart a calico dress today.2 Had a delightful rain this afternoon, with some thunder and lightning. How thankful I feel for it, for surely we needed it more, for to look at the crops around, the prospect presented starvation for another year. – – Bake has woven a little on Mary’s cloth today. The Yankees put a stop to it for a long time and I feared it would be lost to her, but I hope now we may have an opportunity of finishing it and that she may be able to yet.

  1. The use of “Uncle” to occasionally describe Bartlett suggests he is well into adulthood. That term, along with “Aunt,” are usually considered “familiar” terms, indicating a long term relationship. It is possible there are two Bartletts, and the Uncle is used to identify the elder one.  (back)
  2. Yes, small boys wore dresses in those days. Being first dressed in breeches, breeching, was a rite of passage for a young boy.  (back)

Sunday, 26 June, 1864

This the first Lord’s day we have been permitted to attend Church for six weeks. Bill remained at home and the rest of us attended. Zac carried Stuart by to see Ju & Mag. Left him till we returned from Church. Ju had been to see Mr. Warner Edwards, who was very sick.1 We all returned to dinner. Zac took Bake and Nan in the boat to call on Mrs. Henley. They spent a pleasant evening and returned to supper. She gave them a description of the visit the Yankees paid them last Saturday and Sunday.

  1. Warner Edwards (1802-1881), lived at “Forest Villa” southwest of Woodbury, was the father of 2nd Lieut. Kleber Edwards.  (back)

Saturday, 25 June, 1864

I am feeling sad all day. – – Had some rooms washed by Bettie, a chemise made for Patsy by Dellah, and Martha is knitting on my gloves.1 – – Gave Bill quinine, but in spite of all this, chill would come. – – Zac had corn shelled this evening to send to Mill’s Mill on Monday, 15 bushels. – – Julian Edwards and Stanley Neale came this afternoon and spent the night.2 3 – – We all sat up quite late. Bake and Nan played a good deal. Jim returned having out wheat only one day and that was for Kleber Edwards.4

  1. Patsy is another slave at Woodbury.  (back)
  2. Julian Edwards was the eldest son of Dr. Lemuel Edwards of Lanesville. A member of the local “Lee’s Rangers,” he was wounded during the Gettysburg Campaign. Unable to perform is regular soldier duties he was detailed to the Confederate Medical Department. He had also been delivering mail to King William during the first months of 1864. He would become Dr. Julian Edwards, my Great Grandfather.  (back)
  3. J. Stanley Neale, Julian’s first cousin, a member of Carter’s King William Artillery, was badly wounded at the Battle of Seven Pines in 1862. By September 1864 he will be listed as a conscript exempted from military service because of “Religious Creed.” He was listed as a “Nazarine,” soon to be called Christadelphian. He would have attended church at Zion. Note: In 1862 the Richmond Daily Dispatch lists him wounded as Juan Stanley Neale. Much later, in 1897, Peyton Neale Clarke’s Old King William Homes and Families repeats his first name as Juan. Juan might have been a nickname, perhaps an unwanted one, because he would go by J. Stanley or just Stanley Neale all of his life. The 1850 US Census clearly shows him, a six year-old, as James S. Neale. Two writes don’t make a Juan.  (back)
  4. Kléber is a French surname. In the absence of other suggestions, Kleber Edwards was probably named for, directly or indirectly, Jean Baptiste Kléber (1753-1800), a French Revolutionary General of high regard. Kleber Edwards was introduced in an earlier footnote.  (back)

Friday, 24 June, 1864

The weather still as dry as powder. If it doesn’t rain in a very short time there will be no corn made. Some of it is as dry as fodder now, distressing to look at. – – I sent Dellah up early this morning for Stuart. Ju came down with him and spent the day. I was sorry to see him so cast down under his late loss by the Yankees. I did all I know how to comfort him, poor fellow. I am so sorry for him, but I hope it all for the best and that those light afflictions may work for him a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory. He was quite sick from eating honey and shortcakes for snack. I prescribed for him brandy and orange peel, but did not relieve. Had to give him soda and a little vinegar with it. He was soon entirely relieved. I had an early supper and Bill walked with him part of the way home. Sent Mag some hot muffins for supper. Gave Parky the day for cleaning and scalding her house. Bartlett and Scott went to W. House.1 – – The Yankees have left. Zac started to go there, but turned back. Brought his blankets.

  1. Scott, another Littlepage slave.  (back)

Thursday, 23 June, 1864

The weather very warm and dry. Finished cutting wheat about dinner time and shocked it up.1 Jim wished to cut in the neighborhood, gave him permission to out tomorrow and next day.2 – – Bake missed her chill, took quinine and slept in her bed. – – Bill had a chill about 12 o’clk. – – Parky got dinner, Dellah and Bettie have banded wheat doing harvest.

  1. Shocking grain means cutting, bundling, and stacking the bundles of grain in a field for drying.  (back)
  2. It was common practice to allow slaves to sometimes work in the neighborhood, “on their own account.” Frederick and Washington will do the same in a few days.  (back)

Wednesday, 22 June, 1864

I was so much relieved last night to hear by Walter that the Yankees had left the C. H. and a portion of General Rosser’s command were there that I feel as if a burden was lifted off.1 – – We ventured to cut wheat today. Larkin, Frederick cutting. – – Martha got dinner. – – I wrote to Mary this morning by Walter. – – Sent some lamb, buttermilk, honey, bread &c to Ju’s by Martha and for Stuart to stay some time. – – Nan went with her and returned to supper, but Stuart was too puny to come.2 Will send him in a day or two. Brought some things to wash for him. Parky _?_.

  1. The Confederate cavalry under General Wade Hampton, keeping between Sheridan’s cavalry and Richmond, shadowed the Federals after the Battle of Tevilian Station as they swung east and south to join Grant at Petersburg. Some of General Thomas Lafayette Rosser’s troops seem to have crossed the Pamunkey into King William, looking for stragglers perhaps. Hampton and Sheridan will clash at the Battle of Samaria Church in Charles City County in two days.  (back)
  2. Stuart is Dr. Ju’s son, Robert Stuart Littlepage, born 10 Sept, 1862. After 10 years of marriage Stuart is Ju and Mag’s only surviving child.  (back)

Tuesday, 21 June, 1864

Well, the Yankees have made their words good. They have gone to work burning and destroying. – – Roscoe Burke is said to have been brutally killed by them yesterday.1 Large fires in the direction of Zion Church. We heard it’s burnt, sent Washington to ascertain. He returned and said the woods were on fire all about there. Most of persons in the vicinity are ruined. – – Two gentlemen came from Richmond to cross the river, Mr. Brown and Mr. Bell to visit their friends in King and Queen.2 Sent them supper to the river, but our boat was not to be found so they came up and staid all night. – – Walter Hanes and Mr. McGill came just after we had robbed a bee hive and frightened us right much.3 I was so much pleased to hear from Mary. Bake has been in bed all day. Had another chill. – – Everything like {work} is suspended, both in the house and field. When McGill and Walter came, Bill and all the rest of the family, Zac and all left the house and went entirely out of hearing, thinking they were Yankees, and it was a long time before they returned.

  1. Roscoe visited Woodbury 11 days earlier. He was 28. Sergeant Burke, of Company H, 9th Virginia Cavalry is reported in his Confederate military records as being “killed by enemy” 1 July, 1864. Robert K. Krick in his 9th Virginia Cavalry, 4th edition (1982) gives his date of death as 6/30/64 but records no specific large scale actions for Burke’s regiment on the 20th of June, or 10 days later. Burke may have been detached from his unit and in King William when he was killed. This would account for Caroline’s recording his death well before word was received and recorded by his company.  (back)
  2. Misters Brown and Bell remain unidentified.  (back)
  3. Walter Hanes, about 25,  is the brother of Garland Hanes, Jr., Caroline’s son-in-law, husband of daughter Mary Elizabeth (Molly) Littlepage Hanes. – – The only Mr. McGill appearing in the 1860 US Census for the Richmond area was Right Reverend John McGill, Bishop of Roman Catholic Diocese of Richmond. McGill served as a chaplain to Confederate troops during the war and it is possible he was traveling in that capacity. However, that Caroline does not identify this Mr. McGill as such, when she surely would have known of him or have been so introduced, argues for a different, as yet unidentified, Mr. McGill.  (back)

Monday, 20 June, 1864

The troops are marching to the W. H., being met on their way by some of the troops and wagons of provisions for the army, plaguing wild work as they go, burning and destroying everything. Lucy from Ju’s went off with them today and they have damaged Jim greatly.1 – – Parky washed today and Dellah cooked dinner. – – Bill with the hands, cart and drivers took care of some corn tonight, five loads. We send Washington to the C.H. every day to hear what’s going on. Bill came in at 12 to tell me the Yankees had all left, but would be up early in the morning.

  1. Lucy was evidently a “servant” of Dr. Ju. Lem is likely Dr. Lemuel Edwards, later often referred to as “Cousin Lem,“ of Lanesville. Union troops would likely pass near or through Lanesville on their way to cross the Pamunkey River to White House in New Kent County.  (back)

Sunday, 19 June, 1864

We arose this morning thinking to pass the day quietly and undisturbed. Bill took Washington after breakfast and went over the river to Mr. Henley’s to enquire what they needed most. Mrs. Henley had dusted one of her flour barrels to get enough to thicken soup for the children’s breakfast. Nothing was left for them to subsist on. As soon as he returned I fixed a bag of meal, ½ bushel flour, bucket of butter, quarter of lamb and a basket of shad for Bill to return with immediately. Just as he was about to start, some of the servants discovered the whole army returning by the same route they took yesterday, some to Walkerton, some to Dunkirk and other places to cross. We were then thrown into a state of despair, knowing they would have to pass through the County, and long before night heard they were crossing at Walkerton. Bake sent Washington to her Uncle Hill’s.1 They captured him, but he gave them the slip and came home. – – They captured the mule I hired to Mr. Slaughter Tuesday. I could sit in my chamber and count the wagons on the King and Queen side as they passed Mr. Henley’s. Bill is afraid to go over. Large fires have been burning in King and Queen today. The Mill and other houses at Walkerton are in ashes. I’ve divided what meal I had with several, ½ bushel to Mrs. McGeorge, ½ bushel to the family at Locust Point and 1 bushel to Ju.2 – – Bake had a chill today. – – 5th Sunday from Church.

  1. Again, more evidence that James Hill King, husband of Caroline’s sister Rosina, is called Hill. I have added the apostrophe.  (back)
  2. I have not been able to place Locust Point. Sandy Point? Locust Dale? Locust Grove in King & Queen? All could have been ransacked. Caroline may be a bit rattled by this point.  (back)

Saturday, 18 June, 1864

A lovely day. Camm sent three hands to assist about wheat.1 – – Had a lamb killed this morning. Sent Mrs. Larkin Garrett a _?_ by Frank.2 – – It was a mistake about Yankees crossing at Walkerton last night. They are as thick as the locust in Egypt. Are destroying everything in their way in passing down through King and Queen by different roads. Said to be 15,000 Cavalry. Thousands of them have been in sight of the wheat fields where we are culling wheat all day, wagons and all. Have been thick in the yard at Hillsborough, and Mr. King’s just opposite, and have stripped them of everything useable.3 Bill is quite complaining and has ventured to go to bed in the house tonight. I don’t remember the last time he slept in the house. He and Zac, Mr. Slaughter, Larkin, Powell and some others took supper at Mrs. McGeorge’s this evening.4 Bill sent across the river to ascertain what the Yankees had done at Mr. Henley’s.5 They had left them nothing to subsist on, but he who fed them in the wilderness will provide for all who trust in Him. O that he would hide us under the shadow of his wings until these calamities be overpast.6 It is now ten o’clk. Zac has just bid me good night and started out with his blanket to look for a hiding place for the night. – – Bake is more desponding and downcast today than I’ve seen her since the war commenced. Poor children, their springtime of life. How is it being spent?

  1. The transcription reads “Camon.” A closer reading suggests this is Camm Garrett, identified earlier on 10 June.  (back)
  2. Probably a quarter of that lamb.  (back)
  3. Hillsborough, across and just down the river in King & Queen is mid-eighteenth century ancestral home of the Humphrey Hill and descendants. Now on the National Register of Historic Places, Hillsborough still bares scars from that June Saturday in 1864. “Mr. King’s just opposite” sounds like Sandy Point, the home of Caroline’s guests the previous Sunday.  (back)
  4. The Gilmer map shows a Mrs. McGeorge living directly across the river from the Henley’s at Hillsborough. This is likely Agnes McGeorge, about 60, widow of William McGeorge. They lived at Eglington, or adjacent to it. The McGeorges will appear often in this journal.  (back)
  5. In 1864 Hillsborough was owned by Joseph Temple Henley. This frequently appearing family name is spelled in the transcription as Henly, Hanley, and Henley. It is also variously spelled in old King & Queen County public records. I will make the spelling consistent using the modern spelling: Henley.  (back)
  6. Fans of the King James Bible will recognize “overpast.”  (back)

Friday, 17 June, 1864

The first warm day we have had since the 1st of June. We commenced culling wheat today with the hands, Jim, Frederick and Bartlett.1 – – Had a fine quarter of lamb for dinner. Martha cooked first cucumbers. Mr. Lipscomb took dinner and supper today. He and Zac went out in the boat tonight. – – Bill walked away to hear the news. Heard the Yankees were crossing at Walkerton tonight. Don’t know how true it is.2 Sent Mrs. C. Garrett 4 or 5 pounds of butter and a cooler of buttermilk by Martha after breakfast.3 – – Little Cobb ploughed some today. 4

  1. First appearance of Woodbury slave Frederick.  (back)
  2. This was Sheridan’s cavalry returning from Trevilian Station. They had been living at least partly “off-the-land” for a week. Thus they chose to forage deep into King & Queen County before doubling back and crossing into King William at Dunkirk. However, Sheridan reported that “None (supplies) can be obtained south of the Mattaponi, between this point (Dunkirk) and the White House.” While KW was already well-scoured, Sheridan’s men were hungry and, fresh from battle, on edge. It would be a long 48 hours in central King William for all concerned until the Federals crossed the Pamunkey and rejoined Grant.  (back)
  3. The name here is very faded but I believe Caroline wrote Mrs. C. (Camm) Garrett instead of the C. Barrett transcriber saw. I can find no Barrett family close by.  (back)
  4. There were three Cobb families living close to the Littlepages in according to the 1860 census. All three had teenage or young adult boys in the 1860 Census. The youngest would have been James, about 16 in 1864.  (back)

Thursday, 16 June, 1864

Still cool. Bill sent Washington to the C.H. to learn something in relation to the Yankees. Heard a great deal of their wicked doings, but not much in regard their future plans. – – Sent Ju by Washington this evening 4 pecks meal and some 3 or 4 pounds butter. – – Hills walked with Bake home this morning and sat an hour or so.1 Was very much pleased with the crop of corn.- – We have been informed this evening that the Yankees from the W. House are camping on this side the river. – – And that Sheridan’s cavalry are crossing over in the county.2 We are all up late tonight afraid to retire.

  1. Perhaps as numerous in the vicinity of Woodbury as the Lipscombs are members of the Hill family. Hill was a common given name as well. This is surely James Hill King who married Caroline’s sister Rosina Ellett. He is frequently written in the journal as Hill or Hills, sometimes prefixed with “Uncle.” Maybe Hills is a nickname. Caroline also sometimes fails to use the apostrophe when appropriate. Or it has faded with time. To minimize confusion, from now on I will standardize the spelling as Hill, adding the apostrophe when needed. There is no family named Hills in the local tax books or censuses at this time.  (back)
  2. Sheridan’s troops were indeed heading back into the area from Trevilian Station on the 16th. But it will take a few more days for most to return. Alternatively, these Union cavalry may not be Sheridan’s.  (back)

Wednesday, 15 June, 1864

This is the coolest weather I have ever know in June, and dry withall. The corn has changed color a little on account of it. It’s fine for the wheat, sugar cane is looking first rate, also peas, potatoes, &c. Garden in desperation. So many different rumors about the Yankees. Mrs. Lipscomb came to inform us that they had left the White House.1 She took dinner with me. Gave her some meal, milk, butter, ac. I sent Frank with her to bring the things back. – – On Bill’s returning home we learned that the Yankees had not all left the White House, and intend making more raids.

  1. This is the first appearance of a member one of the numerous Lipscomb families in King William. Just which Mrs. Lipscomb this is unclear, we may be able to make a decent guess later.  (back)

Tuesday, 14 June, 1864

Thank God the Yankees have not returned yet, but O the anxious suspense I have been in all the time. – – Momentarily expecting something, we know not what. After they left yesterday I thought it was useless to hide the mules again and ventured to have the cotton, peas, potatoes, &c ploughed and then sent them to the cornfield.1 Parky followed the plough. I am at work on Zac’s round-a-bout, Bake wove, Dellah and Bettie at work on my chemises.2 – – I sent the 1/2 doz. late papers by Zac to read.

  1. I have standardized Caroline’s various abbreviations for “et cetera” as “&c”  (back)
  2. A round-a-bout was a short close-fitting jacket worn by men and boys especially in the 19th century.  (back)

Monday, 13 June, 1864

A beautiful morning, and what were my feelings on looking up the road about sunrise and seeing a body of armed men approaching the house, and on approaching nearer discovered they were Yankees.1 Seeing they had fowls of different kinds swung bleeding across the necks of their horses, I tried to keep my senses as much as possible and shut the doors, though I expected them to be broken open. Got the servants in the house and tried to keep Nan from going into spasms. Bill was out in the sugar cane and narrowly made his escape. When Nan looked through the blind and told me she saw Black men with them, I was completely unnerved. I believe if they had have come in the house, I should have dropped dead on the spot. – – They divided at the path and some rode to the barn and called for a certain horse, and after he was brought out ordered Bartlett to mount him. He refused to do so and then told him to hold Charlie till he was ready to take him, at the same time telling him if he ran he would blow his brains out.2 While they were at the barn looking at the pen of shoats and saying what they would do with the mules, some of the rest came in the yard and broke open the hen house doors and took out as many fowls as they wanted. Threw the locks away. They said at the barn they would take mules when they came again. O, what was my dread all the time, but they seemed to have but little time to stay and when they were gone I could scarcely realize it at all. – – Zac came from King and Queen not knowing what had happened. I have no doubt it galled him a great deal to lose his horse, though he said but little. Bill came about 4 o’clk, having fished all day, and by the time he commenced eating, Dellah, who I had put on picket, called out and said two men were riding to the house. He didn’t wait to look, but ran for his life. It proved to be Messrs. Edwards and Powell.3 I didn’t see him any more till towards night. – – I received a note from Bake this morning who, having heard some two or three hundred Cavalry had landed from the W.H. the evening before, threatening what they intended to do in the county.4  Desired me to secure some things and prepare for their reception. They were at the C.H. at day this morning, entered the house by breaking all the locks, went into their sleeping apartments, broke open the girls trunks.5 Tore up and destroyed things generally. I am anxious to hear from their days work elsewhere. – – Will not a just God avenge our wrongs ere long? O, I trust the day of vengeance is drawing near. Sold Mr. Rogers ½ bsh. corn for $50.

  1. As Sherman’s cavalry was still in Louisa County after the Battle of Trevilian Station, just beginning heading back south to link-up with Grant in New Kent County, these soldiers were not his. I have yet to determine their outfit, although their mission seems clear.  (back)
  2. Charlie was another Littlepage horse.  (back)
  3. Several Edwards families lived in the neighborhood. Again, this is likely E.S. Powell mentioned on the 11th. Powell, listed as both a farmer and a hotel keeper in the 1860 U.S. Census, was about 40. He had been a member of the King William Home Guard though July, 1863. Unofficial records indicate he joined “Lee’s Rangers,” but he has no official record. It is evident that in June 1864 he was very active in county defense and may well have rejoined the Home Guard.  (back)
  4. Bake had gone to Mr. Normant’s on a fishing expedition two days earlier, “with the intention of returning home with Mary King.” It is unclear whether Bake was at the Normant’s or King’s when she wrote the note. W. H. would be White House.  (back)
  5. There were at least three holdings near KW Courthouse. Locust Dale, a small five acre tract owned by Warner Edwards (1802 – 1881) and home of Kleber Edwards (1836 – 1912) and his young wife, the former Anna Eliza Corr (1839 – 1899?). According to Ethel Jackson Ahern writing in the Bulletin of the King William Historical Society, October, 1992, while Kleber was away in “Lee’s Rangers,” Anna’s two sisters, Lavinia – Ethel’s grandmother – and Myra Ann, were living with Anna when the soldiers came through in 1864. These trucks may have belonged to them. This would have been an especially trying time for Anna as her first child, Lucy Edmonia Edwards, had died three weeks earlier. Her second child, Mary Gertrude Edwards, was born, if the entries in the Corr family Bible are accurate, the same day. The second was Oak Dale (sometimes Oakdale), the home of Caroline’s son, Dr. Junius. As Caroline quickly writes a vivid description of the raid, the house entered could have been her son’s. But unless Junius and wife Mag had house guests, certainly a possibility, there were no girls living there. Finally there is the property known in the tax records as “King Wm. C.H.,” 440 acres owned by Patrick Henry (P.H.) Slaughter, a large land holder with multiple properties. There was certainly the tavern adjacent to the courthouse, as well as a store he operated. There may have been a residence as well. You KW Courthouse experts out there, chime in.  (back)

Sunday, 12 June, 1864

The weather is exceedingly cool for the season, fire is pleasant all day. – – Nan and I have spent the day very agreeably, although alone, i.e. none of the whole family are home except us. Our servants had many visitors today unexpectedly and it fell to my lot to entertain them, they having gone visiting themselves, i.e. Beck and Parky had.1 They all sat in the porch with me till dinner was ready. They were all a very nice order of Colored People, Uncle Oby’s wife, daughter, grandchildren, grandson’s widow, a very nice “colored lady,” all from Sandy Point, besides some others not named.2 3 – – Margaret from Dr. Ju’s, Jane and Ellen from C.H. – – Bartlett went to escort three young ladies from King and Queen just over the way.4 Made Uncle Oby’s relations some presents when they started for their kindness to him last winter, for which they expressed many thanks and wished I might never be troubled by the Yankees. Frankie came in about the time the rest started.5 Dellah had a young gentleman to call on her also. Bill returned to an early supper. – – 4th Sunday we have stayed from Church.

  1. Beck is another Woodbury “servant.” She also appears in the text as Aunt Becky.  (back)
  2. Sandy Point is about five miles down river from Woodbury. The Gilmer map shows Col. R. (Robert) King residing at Sandy Point. However the KW Land Tax Book lists Edulia (Gregory) King as owner. Robert King’s brother, James Hill King, married Rosina Ellett, Caroline’s sister. Sandy Point State Forest now occupies the site.  (back)
  3. Oby is likely short for Obadiah. Likely this Uncle Oby was either Obey Lawson or Obediah Willis, both listed in the 1866 Personal Property Tax Books, both Negro. As the journal progresses we might be able to better identify him.  (back)
  4. Bartlett is another male Littlepage slave. In 1866 the KW Personal Property Tax Book list a Bartlet Burnley, identified a Negro.  (back)
  5. “Frankie” only appears once in the journal. However this may be Caroline’s nickname for young Frank who was weeding in the yard when the journal began two weeks ago.  (back)

Saturday, 11 June, 1864

A very beautiful morning. Bill went with Mr. Stacy to Larkin’s. Zac rode a horse he left here as far as Mr. Powell’s, I believe.1 Returned at 12 and took Bake and Nan in the boat to Mr. Normund’s on a fishing excursion.2 It was agreed upon sometime ago. I expected them without fail to supper, but Zac and Nan came just as we finished, and Bake was prevailed upon by her friends to remain with the intention of returning home with Mary King.3 The children brought me a basket of nice cherries, the first I’ve had. I pickled directly. – – I took a most delightful ride on Shakespeare this morning.4 Returned at 12. How pleasant everything seems when we can have a little respite from the Yankees. It is said they are leaving the W. House now.5 I only hope it’s so. Don’t know how true it is. Large numbers of our servants have gone with them, as well as from the adjacent counties.

  1. Likely Elijah L. Powell who owned 256 acres “adj. C.H.” according to the 1863 KW Land Tax Book. The 1865 Gilmer map shows an E. Powell living east of Zion Church, about a mile from the Courthouse.  (back)
  2. Samuel F. Norment lived up the river at White Bank plantation. The Norment family name receives several spelling variations over the years, including Norman.  (back)
  3. Mary King is likely the 26 year-old daughter of James Hill King who lived near the courthouse. Mary’s mother was Rosina (Ellett) King, Caroline’s sister. So this would be Caroline’s niece.  (back)
  4. Another of the Littlepage horses.  (back)
  5. White House, was a 18th century plantation in New Kent County on the Pamunkey River and the home of Daniel Park and Martha (Dandridge) Custis, later Martha Washington. It became the crossing site of the Richmond and York River Railroad – now the Norfolk Southern Railway – into King William County in 1860. Used as a supply base for union troops under General George McClellen during the 1862 Peninsula Campaign, the house was burned when the Union troops departed. It was then owned by Robert E. Lee’s son William H. F. “Rooney” Lee, he of “Lee’s Rangers.” Caroline will sometimes abbreviate it as W. H.  (back)

Friday, 10 June, 1864

Another pleasant day. The Col. left sometime after _?_. Bill walked with him and returned with Camm, Larkin, Roscoe Burke and George Stacy, who remained till sometime after dinner.1 2 The two latter, Zac took across the river to get some horses they left over there. – – Bettie and Dellah have been sewing again today. – – Bake commenced weaving on Mary’s cloth today and it’s beautiful.3 Mr. Stacy returned at dark to bring good news _?_ _?_ _?_ have captured Alexandria. 4

  1. A close look at the journal confirms the “C” is Camm Garrett, the C. in the transcription. Camm Smith Garrett (1821-1875) was the brother and neighbor of Larkin Garrett. Camm Garrett is listed in the 1850 U.S. Census as a teacher; he taught at Rumford Academy. He lived at Longwood.  (back)
  2. Felix Roscoe Burke, son of Robert Burke (1808-1877). The Burkes lived at Spring Bank, about 5 miles upriver, west of Woodbury.  (back)
  3. The text before cloth is badly damaged. What looks like “y’s” is all that is visible. However, soon in the journal Bake is mentioned weaving on Mary’s (her sister’s) cloth.  (back)
  4. The Alexandria here likely means Alexandria, Louisiana, not Virginia. The Red River Campaign, a Union initiative, was a dismal failure that concluded the third week of May. For Confederates it was one of the few military bright spots in 1864. There seems to be no mention of a Confederate threat to Alexandria in Virginia mentioned in newspapers of the time.  (back)

Thursday, 9 June, 1864

A delightful day, sweet breeze and pleasant all the time. Bake, Nan, the Col. and Zac to row, went on a fishing excursion this evening. Had supper early and rang the bell for them. Zac has to stand guard tonight. It was so pleasant after Bill and the Col. returned from their walk to the cornfield after supper, we all sat in the porch quite late. Bake and Nan played some of their prettiest songs and duets. The Col. admired the music extravagantly. – – Nearly finished off two pairs of pants for Zac today. William Todd Robins came for Mr. Stacy about 9 o’clk this morning. 1

  1. William (Todd) Robins (1841-1876), son of John Armistead Robins and Emma Miranda [Edwards] Robins, was raised at Winchester in King William County. He was a member of Company H, 9th Virginia Cavalry, a.k.a. Lee’s Rangers, as was volunteer George P. Stacy.  (back)

Wednesday, 8 June, 1864

A beautiful day. Bake walked with Nan and the little servants to get rushes for making window curtains, procured a fine parcel. After basting up a pair of pants of Zac’s for Bettie to stitch, I fitted my organdy body on. Col. McLaughlin came this evening.1 Bill spent the day out picketing. Zac returned in company with George Stacy, who remained all night. Good news from the seat of War. – – Notwithstanding, I am very much depressed in spirits this evening from certain apprehensions. – – All sat up late this evening. Bill stayed out all night.

  1. H. C. McLaughlin is mentioned in 1866 & 1867 KW PP Tax Books. He was likely Hugh C. McLaughlin, a former professor at Georgetown College in Washington, D.C and the father of J. Fairfax McLaughlin listed in 1866 & 1867 in the KW Land Tax Books. Both left KW by 1868, the land sold to Larkin Garrett. As the “Old Col.” does not appear in the tax books until after the war, it appears he is boarding with a local family, and doing some teaching in the community.  (back)

Tuesday, 7 June, 1864

Fine growing weather. – – Zac left with Mr. Warters this morning, and came by, he and Geo Stacy, this evening with 5 prisoners on their way to Capt. Fleet’s in King and Queen.1 2 They crossed over in our boat. Martha cooked today. Parky washed. Dellah still thinning sugar cane. Martha finished thinning cotton. The two little boys, Tom and Frank, are weeding and raking walks. They are beginning to be right serviceable. Cut out a suit of mixed clothes for Zac, home manufacture, and a pair of summer pants. – – Two pair drawers for Bake and 3 Chemise for myself, all Va. Cloth. – – Nannie is knitting a pair of gloves for me. I had _?_ _?_ _?_ should be at school. I believe she has lost nearly a month. Larkin came this evening to inform Bill that 1,000 Yankees’ Cavalry had crossed over into the County at New Castle.3 4 He walked with him back, uncertain the facts before he would start his ploughs. _?_ _?_ at Larkin’s and heard they had crossed through the county via Dunkirk. 5

  1. George Palmer Stacy was born in England about 1842. His father, George Booth Stacy, brought his family to New York City the following year, establishing himself in the upholstering and furniture trade. After the death of his first wife in 1849 he moved his four young children to Richmond and married Emily Coleman Neale. Emily’s mother was Judith Edwards; both the Neale and Edwards families were residents of King William County for generations. George Booth Stacy thus began a long and successful career in manufacturing, retail, and agriculture in Virginia. His son George Palmer Stacy, while not subject to the Confederate draft, was an independent volunteer with the King William Artillery, a.k.a. Carter’s Battery, during the early years of the war. Shortly after appearing at Woodbury he was wounded during the Seven Days Battles. After recovering he enlisted with Company H, a cavalry unit composed of men from King William,“Lee’s Rangers.” He soon met Lucy Daniel Turner of King & Queen County. They would marry a year later after he had recovered from being wounded during what is now called the Gettysburg campaign. Like his father, he prospered after the war.  (back)
  2. Capt. William C. Fleet.  (back)
  3. This was Sheridan’s cavalry heading north for the Battle of Trevilian Station in Louisa County, the largest and bloodiest all-cavalry battle of the war. They had been issued light rations and forage for their horses and would travel the corridor between the Pamunkey and Mattiponi traveling to their showdown with Hampton and Lee. But returning they stayed north of the Mattiponi to better ensure fresh supplies as they were, to some degree, living off the land.  (back)
  4. New Castle was a prosperous small colonial town located on the banks of the Pamunkey River in New Kent County. Once considered as a possible capital of Virginia, it was largely abandoned by the time of the War. It remained, however, a convenient river crossing.  (back)
  5. Dunkirk was a King & Queen County tobacco port town on the Mattiponi River about ten miles upriver from Woodbury. Known as Todd’s Bridge in early colonial days, it was the site a various bridges and ferries that linked King William and King & Queen counties for almost 200 years. Today it is a field.  (back)

Monday, 6 June, 1864

Bill arose quite early this morning and had a lamb killed, and very soon two more Yankee deserters came and we had them put across the river. – – Sent Ju a quarter of lamb by Tom. Bill went up and spent the day with him and returned to supper. – – Bettie cooked dinner and supper today.1 She prides herself very much on it. Finished off a pair of Va. pants for Bill.2 – – Bake has been sewing on my organdy dress.3 She and Nan went fishing today. – – Zac came home about ten o’clk, has a watch he captured.

  1. Another of the Littlepage slaves.  (back)
  2. Virginia cloth was the traditional name for a form of cotton homespun, which sometimes contained wool or flax. Even Virginia gentry wore everyday clothes made of Virginia cloth. Lower class whites and slaves wore little else. As this journal illustrates, “ready-made” clothing, even among the relatively well-to-do, was generally reserved for special occasions.  (back)
  3. Organdy is a plain-woven lightweight, often sheer, cotton cloth with a crisp finish. Often used for trim, curtains, and light apparel.  (back)

Sunday, 5 June, 1864

I arose quite early this morning and made pills of quinine and pepper for Bill. Gave them to him till ten o’clk, kept him _?_till 12. Missed his chill, and arose to dinner.1 – Jim came about 10 o’clk on a horse captured by __?__ sent by him to Larkin to take care of.2 – – The old Col. sent word by Jim he would be down to see us today, but its being rather inclement I suppose prevented his coming.3 – – Two Yankee deserters came this evening. We gave them something to eat and sent them across the river. One was from Maine and the other from Vermont. – – The grandest battle has been going on all the afternoon and until eleven at night, continual roar of cannon and musketry, apparently not more than 6 miles distance. – – No one attended Church today.4 This is 3rd Sunday we have been debarred the privilege of uniting with each other in Thanksgiving and praise to our heavenly Father for his protecting care of us this far in the perils and recipitudes of this poor life.5

  1. I have standardized the instances of time references found in the journal as “o’clk.”  (back)
  2. A neighbor, Larkin S. Garrett (1833-1886).  (back)
  3. Likely the Col. McLaughlin who visits three days later. This Jim is another of the Littlepage slaves. Caroline also mentions other non-slave “Jims” as the journal progresses. Sorting them out will sometimes be difficult.  (back)
  4. This would be Zion that was located at what is now White’s Shop – the intersection of Highway 30 and the road to Lanesville. Zion was founded about 20 years earlier by those who split from the Cambellite Jerusalem Christian Church, itself split from Lower College Baptist – later modern Colosse Baptist. Members of Zion became know as Christadelphians, inspired and named by Dr. John Thomas, a former associate of Campbell. Zion was three – often bad – road miles from Woodbury. The congregation would move in about ten years to Lanesville and worship in a church built by Dr. Lemuel Edwards on his property.  (back)
  5. I have been unable to find “recipitudes” transcribed in any dictionary. Caroline’s intent seems evident by the context; she may have heard the term at Zion Church. Suggestions?  (back)

Saturday, 4 June, 1864

According to promise, Ju came to breakfast. I had given Bill pepper and quinine.1 Ju made no prescription. I gave him some butter for his walk. Made Frank go with him and carry it, with a loaf of bread. Bill walked to James King’s after Ju left.2 – – Dellah and Martha finished planting the cane ground and 7 long rows in beans. – – Finished running corn and commenced planting black eyed peas today. – – Zac came at eleven. Placed the two deserters with the guard yesterday evening. He had some trouble with one of them, who refused to go farther, threw down his knapsack and said he would prefer being shot. – – But after some little remonstrance he went on.

  1. Quinine was commonly used to treat malaria. Several of the Littlepages and their slaves are described in this journal as having malarial-like symptoms. As the journal progresses I would be interested in the comments of anyone with knowledge of malaria, or any disease that might cause the symptoms described by Caroline for herself, her family, or her slaves.  (back)
  2. The transcriber of the journal took Caroline’s hand to read “Sou Kin’s.” Looking at other capital letters on that page, I believe the first letter is a J. Further, next two letters seem to me more like “as.” That would indicate “Jas.,“ an abbreviation of James. The three letters of the next word do indeed seem to be Kin. The is a small loop at the end of the “n” as Caroline runs out of space on the page, as if another letter would be there. Since we seen to be looking at a first and last name, and a very close neighbor is James H. King, I suggest Bill walked to James King’s.  (back)

Friday, 3 June, 1864

Found it raining when we awoke this morning. Started Dellah directly after breakfast to transplanting potatoes. Put out upwards of 1,000 plants, then went about planting beans. No ploughing going on, as much as it’s wanting. – – Zac came about 1. Was about to start away on Duroc, received orders to take up deserters.1 – – Two Yankee deserters came to where he was, just before he left. He brought them to the house and I gave them something to eat and he took them to his camping. I took a walk with Bill up to the Turn about ten, and very soon after we returned, he was taken with a chill. I sent Tom for the Dr. immediately.2 Received a note by Tom saying he was too unwell to walk down, that being the only way he could come. – – Bill was no better after dinner. I sent Frank again for him. Received another note, he is still too unwell to come, will be down to breakfast in the morning if he is well enough. Yankee marauders are playing destruction in every direction, leaving families starving and carrying off all the servants.3

  1. Duroc was the name of one of the Littlepage horses. He may have been a descendent of Duroc, a famous Virginia racehorse. The term today is more commonly associated with a breed of domestic pig.  (back)
  2. The Dr. here refers to her son, Dr. Ju.  (back)
  3. The Littlepages, as did probably all slaveholders in Virginia, preferred to refer to their slaves as servants. They also preferred to believe the Yankees “carried off” their slaves rather than the slaves saw opportunities for freedom, and took them.  (back)