Sunday, 31 July, 1864

Quite a pleasant day. Nan and Bill remained at home, the former on her jaw having had it plastered with mustard for toothache, which she has suffered for several days with. – – Very few were at Church today, lack in warmness seems to prevail among Christians. – – Pigeo rode to cousins to carry a letter for him to mail tomorrow morning to Bake. – – Nannie Lewis sent a servant down with a note to Pigeo and a perch, a piece for herself and brother. Sent for shucks for a hat for herself.

Saturday, 30 July, 1864

Had the rutabaga seed planted first thing this morning. Frederick ploughed the ground with George. – – Had the dining room nicely cleaned by Bettie and moved the safe’s table, &c.1 – – Gave the servants holiday. Dellah ironed some dresses for Pigeo and myself. – – Bill and Zac returned from the Point at 12 p.m. Brought some nice crabs. – – Pigeo finished off a beautiful Swiss body.

  1. What was moved was probably a “pie safe,” although other food items were often stored in them.  (back)

Friday, 29 July, 1864

Fine growing morning. Bill delivered the remaining five and a half barrels of corn this morning, sent it to the C.H. by Jim. Mr. Hillyard will take it from there and settle for the whole of the ten barrels on receipt @ only $100 pr. brls. – – Sarah came for another pound of butter for $7. – – Bill made a mistake in the corn of a brl., will deliver that to Mr. Hillyard on application.1 – – Bill went to W. Point this evening crabbing. Drove Duroc to the buggy, gave him a pullet. – – Having the early peas’ ground prepared for turnips. Tom and Frank pulled the vines up, and Uncle Bartlett and Addison hauled some manure on the ground.2 The 1st sowing of rutabagas are coming up.

  1. The transcript identifies “Bec” as making the mistake. A closer look reveals it was Bill.  (back)
  2. Addison is another male slave at Woodbury.  (back)

Thursday, 28 July, 1864

Quite warm again. Bill went to “Millers” and returned about 4. Will report to Lieut. Haw tomorrow. – – Zac went over to Mr. Henley’s this evening, took Buck along with him.1 Got back to supper. – – I finished off a couple of homespun chemise for Nannie. – – Parky and Patsy are spinning filling for a piece of coarse cloth. Martha spinning fine cotton. Dellah got dinner and supper, and Patsy got breakfast and milk in the evening. Parky milks in the morning.

  1. Buck joins our roster of Woodbury slaves.  (back)

Wednesday, 27 July, 1864

Very pleasant again today. – – Mr. Hanes and Bake started about 7, Bartlett having gone on ahead with her baggage in a tumbrel with the things for Mary. – – I feel sad at parting with her. I shall miss her society so much. She is a dear affectionate child and one who tries very hard to do what is right. When she does wrong, so readily repents and acknowledges her faults. I trust the Lord will continue to guide her through the uneven course of time and receive her to himself at last and rewards her as she deserves. – – Bartlett got back abut 5. _?_riages $ 2 ½. Drove two mules.1 – – Planted a square of white turnips in the garden.

  1. “_____iages $ 2 ½” remains unidentified. This seems the price of something, bought or sold. If you want to give it a try, I have put two images in Dropbox. Click on them, take a look and let me know what you see. Image #1, “Bartlett got back about 5.” and Image #2, _?_ 2 ½.  (back)

Tuesday, 26th July, 1864

Very pleasant since the rain. Bill and Mr. Hanes rode to the C. H. The former continued his ride to Mrs. Lewis’ for the onions we engaged for Mary. He was unable to get more than one bushel. They returned to dinner. Bake is busy preparing for her trip. She thinks of staying a very long while. – – Measured the cloth she wove for Mary. We can’t account for its overrunning so much. I warped 28 yds., and it measures up 33 ½ yds. It must be owing to waxing it in the loom. – – Bill brought the mail. Bake received a letter from Sallie Wright, with one enclosed to Hardie. She writes so affectionately. We all feel well acquainted with her though none of us have seen her.1 – – Bill and Garland went fishing this evening. – – I fixed up some lard and butter for Mary, will send her ½ doz. shad. – – Commenced fallowing for wheat.

  1. Affectionate Sallie Wright remains unidentified.  (back)

Monday, 25 July, 1864

Another lovely day. Zac had the remainder of wheat fanned and measured up, 182 bushels rough measure. – – I had the rutabaga patch dragged by Bartlett and the rest of the hands to get rails to enclose it. – – He ploughed a square in the garden after he finished that for white turnips.1 – – Put the beehives in place. We had hid them from the Yankees. Bill attended Court and returned to supper.2 He has to report at Miller’s Thursday. He bought one bushel potatoes, onions of Mrs. Lewis for Mary. Garland, arrived about nine p.m., will take Bake over on Wednesday.3 Received a letter from Mary.

  1. A square is a unit of area equaling 100 square feet; a 10 x 10 foot patch of ground would be 1 square.  (back)
  2. The 4th Monday of each month is Court Day in King William County.  (back)
  3. Yes, the potatoes purchased of Mrs Lewis on the 17th were for Mary Hanes, Caroline’s oldest daughter. In the journal there is no period between Mary and Garland. But Mary is the last word at the end of a line and Garland starts the next. For a time I thought Caroline was referring to a Mary Garland. But Garland Hanes is Mary’s husband. Bake will leave with Garland for a long visit with the Hanes family in Henrico in two days.  (back)

Sunday, 24 July, 1864

A very pleasant day, almost too cool for summer clothes. Pigeo remained at home, the rest of us (excepting Zac, who received orders by Catsby Lewis this morning, who breakfasted here, to take some document somewhere, I don’t know where exactly).1 Attended Zion. I carried the Emblems, feeling so entirely the cold indifference shown ever since the Yankees treated us so badly.2 – – Hardin officiated, Bill dined at Ju’s, the rest of us returned to dinner and attended the funeral of old Mr. Lipscomb at his late residence.3 Sermon by Sand, a very appropriate one.4 – – Had a beautiful rain. The first one we have had to benefit for some considerable length of time.

  1. This is Catsby (Catesby) Latane Lewis, about 18, of the Essex County Cavalry Reserves. He was the half-brother of Dr. John Latane Lewis of Auburn. Thanks to Anne Jackson for research assistance.  (back)
  2. At Zion the bread and wine used for communion was called the Emblems. In Christadelphian church services the term is still used.  (back)
  3. King William County did not keep death records for the war years. With the number of Lipscombs in the county we are going to need help on this one. Suggestions anyone?  (back)
  4. Johann A. Sand (John A.) was born in 1812 on the border of France and Germany. He arrived in Baltimore in 1832 and soon became associated with the historically German-American Otterbein Church. Called to preach the gospel he traveled to communities in Pennsylvania and Ohio as a minister of the Church of the United Brethren in Christ. Evidently – as I can find no other likely minister – after returning to Baltimore, and while serving as pastor of the Otterbein Church (1860-1867), he traveled to Virginia and King William County. Sand’s church had long ties with Methodism and is today part of the United Methodist Church. Sand will next month again preach a funeral in King William.   (back)

Saturday, 23 July, 1864

Quite a pretty day. – – Parky did up some things for Bake and Pigeo. Sally Hill came for a barrel of corn this morning. Larkin promises to see it returned out of the new crop.1 – – Finished machining wheat before dinner. – – And commenced fanning.2 – – I finished a handsome suit of Va. cloth for Bill today, worth $500. He is much pleased with the fitting and looks well in them. He values them more highly on account of the roundabout being mixed with Leo’s hair.3 – – Bake finished that everlasting piece of cloth (to?)day and she really rejoices, and her head aches too bad for her to make as big a fuss about it as she would otherwise do. – – I have furnished Bill with four pairs pants, and a roundabout, and Zac the same, besides various other articles of wearing apparel, such as shirts, drawers, socks, &c, &c, all home manufacture and most beautiful hat made by Bake.

  1. Who is this Sally Hill? That in the next sentence Larkin Garrett, “promises to see it returned out of the new crop” indicates he is guaranteeing repayment. A family listed as black in the same 1860 KW U.S. Census enumeration district as the Littlepages and Garretts is headed by Fanny Hill, 60. Listed next is a daughter, Sally, 26. She is the only Sally Hill to be found. Is the corn for him or the Hills? Do the Hills work for the Garretts? As we read through this journal we will find Larkin mentioned frequently as both a neighbor and business associate.  (back)
  2. Separating the wheat from the chaff. The kernels of wheat are thrown into the air. The light chaff to blows away and the wheat kernel falls back to the ground where they are collected.  (back)
  3. Leo is a family dog.  (back)

Friday, 22 July, 1864

Machining again today. Ju sent Sarah down to take Beck’s place and let her go back.1 I did so. – – Bake is trying her best to get Mary’s cloth out today, but she says it’s like the old woman’s cruse of oil, no end to it.2 – – Bill dismissed Sarah this evening. Only a few hours work for our own hands in the morning. – – Zac walked up for the mail today. Not much news of importance today.

  1. Sarah must be one of Dr. Ju’s and Mag’s slaves.  (back)
  2. 1 Kings 17:16. The transcript shows “curse.” Caroline’s handwriting again. A cruse is an earthen vessel, the reference a common Biblical metaphor Caroline would have known.  (back)

Thursday, 21 July, 1864

Quite a pretty day, but very smoky weather. Commenced machining today. Beck came down. – – Ju acts very childishly of late. I walked to the barn and requested Bill to have some corn put in bags to go to Mill in the morning. – – Patsy washed out some mildew things this morning. Got dinner and commenced digging potatoes this evening. They are very indifferent, it is so dry everything almost is scorched up. – – Messrs. Meredith, Burg and Lewis came to go fishing by promise to Zac.1 All dined here and left after dark. – – Mrs. Crow and Bettie Lipscomb came yesterday and borrowed a barrel of corn for old Mr. Crow. I promised to let him have it if he would fix things right. Bake and Pigeo sent a pair of shoes apiece for Mr. Crow to mend.2 – – Mr. Davis came this evening to bring a letter from Mr. Watson Walker respecting corn promises to pay four and a half bls. of new corn for the four bls. I loaned him last week.3

  1. This Mr. Meredith is unknown. It could have been one of the sons of Olymphia King by her first marriage. Olymphia was the daughter of Fleming Meredith and Nancy Edwards of King William. As small children their surname, Blood, was changed to that of their mother. However, Fleming, 28 and the eldest, was an active confederate soldier at the time of this fishing expedition. We have no information about his younger brother Friendless, three years younger, except that he may have taken the name John F. Meredith. As such he appears in Clarke’s Old King William Homes and Families. While Clarke states that John F. Meredith served in the “Confederate States Army’ for three years and four months, documentation of service is otherwise missing. He does seem to have joined and soon resigned in mid-1861. There is also an 1862 letter of recommendation for a position in the Treasury Department in existing records. Past that, there is little to go on. There are no Burgs (or Bergs) listed in the 1860 KW U.S. Census, or the 1863 KW PP or Land Tax lists. The Lewis is probably Phil, who we just met on the 15th.  (back)
  2. The 1860 census lists Henry Crow, a farmer about 59 in 1864, living with Wm. Crow, 26. The Gilmer map shows an H. Crow living down the county near Colosse Church with both a Lipscomb and Ellett household adjacent. That Bettie Lipscomb (probably Elizabeth E. Lipscomb, 39, a head of household in the 1860 census) came with Mrs. Crow (daughter-in-law of Henry?) might indicate these neighbors visited Caroline to borrow some corn. In any case Caroline seems less interested in lending corn than trading it for shoe repair. Caroline will do business with Mrs. Crow and Mrs. Lipscomb as a duo again.  (back)
  3. Watson Walker lived in King & Queen County. He was 29, the son of John Walker. You can read about the Walkers in In Old Virginia – Slavery, Farming, and Society in the Journal of John Walker, by Claudia Bushman, 2002. It is excellent.  (back)

Wednesday, 20 July, 1864

Cloudy with dense fog. The hands have been gabbing all day. Patsy spinning, Martha spun a little in the front Chamber. Parky ironed. – – Dellah and Bettie gabbing. – – Bill sent Washington up to request Ju to send Aunt Becky down in the morning to help about machining wheat, also sent for some meal we are borrowing.1

  1. “..meal we are mowing” in the transcript is actually “meal we are borrowing.”  (back)

Monday, 18 July, 1864

Weather cool. – – Commenced hauling wheat today, ox cart, wagon and tumbrel. Dellah, Bettie and Patsy put it in the barn as fast as they haul it. Zac returned from Lieut. Haw’s in the night last night complaining.1 2 Larkin and Claiborne Hill came about dawn. I paid Claiborne $2250.00 for a horse for Zac. – – I am busy today about a suit of clothes for Bill, Va. – – Parky washed, Martha got dinner. Bake’s getting along very well with Mary’s cloth.

  1. The transcription renders “Lieut. Haw’s” as “Secret Hours.” Caroline’s handwriting, while generally easily read, is sometimes a challenge.  (back)
  2. Lieut. George P. Haw from Hanover County lost his left arm at the Battle of Antietam in 1862. Captured, he was exchanged later that year and was soon detailed as was enrollment (conscription/draft) officer for the C.S.A. for Hanover and King William Counties. Haw was honorably retired from field service November, 1864. He received a law degree from Washington College (VA) in 1867 and served as Commonwealth Attorney for Hanover County for 48 years. Haw died in 1930.  (back)

Sunday, 17 July, 1864

Cool and pleasant, and as dry as possible. Rain is so much wanting. All except Nannie left home. Bill stopped at the C.H. and the rest of us attended Zion, came by Ju’s. I wanted to have some talk with him, but we chatted very little. Spent the afternoon at Mrs. Lewis’.1 She and the girls were very much pleased to see us. – – I engaged 3 bushels potatoes _?_for Mary.2 Price not named. – – All returned home to supper.

  1. Mrs. Lewis was the wife of Dr John L. Lewis of “Auburn.” She was Barbara Johanna Winston of Hanover Co.  (back)
  2. Are these potatoes for Mary Elizabeth Hanes, Caroline’s married daughter?  (back)

Saturday 16 July, 1864

Cool enough this morning for fires. I wrapped up well and took a ride with Bill to look at the hogs. Returned by the cowpen where Parky’s milking, and there through the corn, it’s looking beautiful. Only needs rain, suffering very much for it. Returned to breakfast. Have been busy all day about Bill’s suit, with Dellah to help me. Parky and Martha commenced spinning this evening, ready for carding. Zac returned to supper, staid at Col. Hill’s last night.1 – – Bake’s weaving. The children went Whortleberry hunting this evening. – – I went to the barn after dark to have Shake and George given corn. 2

  1. The Gilmer Map shows the residence of a “Col. Hill” about a mile south of West Point (St. John’s) Church on the road to West Point. As yesterday Zac went “down the county” to pick up conscripts, this may be here he spent the night. This house is identified on the 1976 Garber/Wendenburg map as Cherry Lane. That was the home of William Hill according to the 1863 KW Land Tax Rolls. (William appears in the 1860 US Census, 47, probably a widower. His son Robert Christopher Hill married Cornelia Todd Littlepage, daughter of Hardin Littlepage in 1861.) Mr. Hill was a member of the 87th Regiment of the Virginia Militia, identified as a Captain as early as 20 years before. It appears that at some point he attained the rank of Col.  (back)
  2. George is another Littlepage horse, along with Shakespeare and Duroc.  (back)

Friday, 15 July, 1864

A delightfully pleasant day. Had a nice parcel of peas _?_ _?_ to carry Mrs. Lewis. – – Phil Lewis came out and brought over papers and letters.1 Bake and I received one apiece from Mary and she one from Cora Power and one from Mrs. Wynn.2 3 – – I had an early dinner in order to go up for Pigeo. The first session closes today. – – Nan and I went in the carriage for her. Met with several there, Hal and P_?_y Hill went up for Bell Boykin, Willies down.4 5 Paid Dr. Lewis $400 in old issue for five months, $6.66 due him now, could not change a $50 note. – – Miss Fletcher will resume her school again the first of September, if the Yankees are quit in the County.6 Zac went with Phil Lewis on his way down the County getting up conscripts. – – All hands are about sugar cane still.

  1. Philip (Phil) Winston Lewis, about 18, was the son of Dr. John Latane Lewis and older brother of Nannie Lewis.  (back)
  2. Frederick K. W. Power, M.D. of York County, Virginia married in 1843 Caroline D. Hanes, daughter of Garland Hanes, Sr. of Henrico County. Their first child was Cora, born 1844. Caroline Littlepage’s daughter Mary Elizabeth married Garland Hanes, Jr. ten years later. A decade later Dr. Power and his family were living at “Edgewood,” Hanes Sr’s home in Henrico, driven from their York County home during the Peninsula Campaign two years earlier. Garland, Jr., Mary, and their children were living nearby. Cora and Bake were almost the same age. We will see more of the Power family.  (back)
  3. The only nearby Wynn families in the 1860 and 1870 census are listed as mulatto or black. However Wynn is also an Indian name, common also in New Kent County. I suspect many of these Wynns are non-reservation, mixed race (Indian/White) Indians, perhaps including the Mrs. Wynn who wrote to Bake. Caroline will mention later that Bake received another letter from Mrs. Wynn and sent a reply. Of course Mrs. Wynn may have been a school mate of Bake. Without a first name or residence for Mrs. Wynn, we probably will never know.  (back)
  4. Hal was Harriet Brumley, later spelled by Caroline as Brumly. She was the daughter of Mary Burnet [Hill] Brumley and (probably the late) William Brumley, about which little is known. The 1850 U.S. Census shows Harriet, 6, living with her mother, 27,  in the household of her grandmother Harriet Hill. Harriet Hill is listed as 59 that year. Her husband Robert Hill had been dead six years. Ten years later the Census shows her still living in her grandmother’s household with her mother and two aunts. Hal was about 19 when Caroline first mentions her.  (back)
  5. The second wife of General Francis Marshall Boykin, II, of Isle of Wright County was Mildred James Hill of King William. She was the sister of Mary Burnet Hill in the previous footnote. By the time the Boykins appear in Caroline’s journal in 1864 both of their parents are dead. The 1860 U.S. Census lists four Boykin children of Mildred: William Hill, Robert H., Isabella, and Claiborne. As all are eventually mentioned by Caroline, they must have been staying with their grandmother Harriett Hill, as was Hal Brumley. William Hill, about 13 in 1864, must have been called Willie. We will learn in later entries that what the transcriber saw as Bill was meant as Bell or Belle, the nickname for Isabella, about 11. The younger boys, Robert H., 9, and Claiborne, 8, rounded out the family. In the journal the P_?_y looks like Pinky. If another female from the H. H. Hill household was riding with Hal Brumley it may have been Virginia Hill, about 30, a daughter of the widow Hill. Virginia’s nickname could have been Pinky. Suggestions welcome. That they “went up for Bell Boykin, Willies down,” would suggest the children went to different schools, Dr. Lewis’ and probably Rumford.  (back)
  6. Our Miss Fletcher remain unidentified.  (back)

Thursday, 14 July, 1864

Bill went over to have some hogs penned. They are worrisome about getting in the wheat and oat fields. We are making a finish of the corn today, and thinning out the sugar cane a little more. Bake and Zac got home about eleven. – – Mrs. Moser and her little son came again today. Brought my butter plate back and some drawings for us to look at. – – Gave her another bottle milk. – – I am cutting out a suit of soldier clothes for Bill of Va. cloth. He has to go up to the Service 4th of August, and I am so sorry. Bake and Zac returned from Dr. Lewis’ about eleven.

Wednesday, 13 July, 1864

Fine growing morning. Mrs. Moser came in a cart before breakfast for the ½ barrel of corn pr. order of Mr. Hillyard, and I sold her ½ barrel @ $50 pr. bushel, which she says Mr. Moser will pay for soon. – – N. Terry came to see about getting corn as a barter for making a boat the 1st year of the war @ 20.1 Wished to get corn at the old price, $4 pr. barrel, but I told him that was rather more than I could do. I told him if he objected to receive Confederate money, I would try and get Va. money. – – Mrs. Moser left before dinner. I gave her a plate of butter, lamb, piece of a ham, bacon, milk, mess of field peas, loaf bread, &c for which she was very thankful. – – Mrs. Moser sent Bake a little present of a reading. Gave Iverson melted butter this morning.2 The 3rd dose of calomel _?_it improves under the treatment. – – I have commenced giving Shakespeare medicine, give him a tablespoonful (hair-store), pounded a half teaspoonful copper and a little salt in a fodder meal, one a day.3 He was looking badly. – – Zac and Bake rode to Dr. Lewis this evening and spent the night. The school adjourns tomorrow.

  1. Terry is another old King William family name. The 1863 Tax Books lists a Nat. Terry living within a mile or so of Woodbury.  (back)
  2. Iverson is another slave at Woodbury.  (back)
  3. No idea the meaning of hair-store.  (back)

Tuesday 12 July, 1864

Rain is much wanting. Didn’t have enough last evening to get the corn out of the twist. Bill had corn shelled this morning for some poor people. I went to the barn while he was eating breakfast and had another barrel of corn shelled and measured. Two of the Walters’ servants came for four barrels corn without an order. I told them to go back, that was not the way to do business. They did so and soon returned with an order from Mr. Davis, his agent.1 Bill went out and delivered four barrels corn to them. – – Finished cutting oats yesterday. Today we are ploughing potatoes, cotton, &c. Patsy planted the lot in corn behind the smoke house. Frederick ploughed and laid it off. – – Bake’s weaving on my dress. Wove one yard today. Bill’s suffering right much with cough and cold, is _?_ prudent though. Parky’s little baby is very puny, have been giving it token doses of Calomel, it has never been a healthy child since it was born, though it’s ravenous about eating. – – Zac returned from Miller’s this evening, where he went to yesterday from Aylett’s. His Uncle Billy came over on his way home. They will all remain at home till 4th of Aug., at which time they go in service and if Bake goes to Mary’s as she expects to do shortly, I shall be lonely and unprotected if the Yankees come, but my trust is in my God, as it has ever been.2 I pray for help and strength from him. – – Had potatoes, cotton, beans, &c, ploughed, and weeded.

  1. Likely the same Mr. Davis who picked up 5 bushels of corn four days ago. This Mr. Walters is likely Fleming Waters, about 54, a local miller. This is not likely the Mr. Warters, probably W. S. Warters (or Walters or Waters), who is a member of the local Home Guard who frequently visits Bill and Zac.  (back)
  2. Besides Bill and Zac, Caroline’s brother Billy (William M. Ellett), 46, is eligible for conscription. He appears on Lieut. Haw’s rolls with blue eyes, and grey hair. At 5’ 10” he would be among the taller confederate soldiers.  (back)

Monday, July 11, 1864

Pleasant, but very dry. Bill, with his Uncle Billy and Zac went to Ayletts to a meeting of the board.1 They will go by Hill’s. Sent Rose a basket of peas and some loaf bread.2 Gave them a shock while Bake was copying a little piece of writing for her Uncle Bill, and I settled up our affairs from Richmond. Couldn’t collect his interest on bonds or coupons. – – Found he couldn’t get 6 pr. ct. bonds for the money in Mr. Turner’s hands.3 Some 10 or 11,000$, also 1,000$ or more in the hands of Mr. Wilson. While Bake and I were at dinner, Mrs. Moser and her little son came to buy corn.4 Had an order from Mr. Hillyard for 2 ½ bushels to be deducted from the 25 bushels I still have on hand for the poor.5 – – A small shower of rain this evening. Mrs. Rogers came for corn, but Bill had the keys. 6

  1. Founded by a prominent local family, Ayletts was in 1864 the largest commercial center in King William County. The target of several Union army raids, by then it was heavily damaged. What the term, “meeting of the board” means is unknown. At first I suspected Caroline of having a dry sense of humor, referring to a social gathering of men with a more dignified description. But then I ran across a reference in Green Mount* to Tom Dudley traveling in 1861 to Dr. Fleet’s residence, among others, to get proxy signatures of shareholders of the Richmond and York River Railroad. (Tom was the son of Alexander Dudley, the prime mover behind the railroad.) As that enterprise, and its sister the West Point Land Company, were the first examples of modern corporations in the area, and they relied at least in part on local investors, it is possible that by 1864 some type of “meeting of the board” in Aylett might be held. More research is needed to see if this was the case, there was some other board meeting, or Caroline did indeed have a sense of humor. *Green Mount – A Virginia Plantation Family During the Civil War, 50th Anniversary Edition. Ed. Betsy Fleet & John D. P. Fuller, 2012  (back)
  2. If she is sending Rose a basket as they are to “go by Hill’s” it is another indication that the “Hill” often referred to is her brother-in-law “Hill” King.  (back)
  3. This would be Mr. Turner of Moore and Turner, commission merchants. Today we generally use the term “broker.” We will learn more of them on 4 September.  (back)
  4. No Mosers appear in the KW 1860 U.S. Census. But Daniel Moser and family do appear in the Acquinton Township 1870 Census. He is then 66, a cabinet-maker born in Germany. His wife Fredericka, 50, is also listed as German born, as is son Charles, 32, a painter. But son Edwin, 15 is listed as being born in Maryland. If this is the Moser family, then it is probably Fredericka and Edwin, 9 in 1864, visiting Caroline. That they have come for corn by order of Mr Hillyard would indicate the Mosers are struggling financially. Both Daniel and Charles do appear on the 1863 KW Personal Property tax rolls, as Mozart. They have 100$ of household and kitchen equipment between them and owe little tax, $2.00 each. On 15 October Caroline will make an interesting comment about the family.  (back)
  5. R. A. Hillyard, a Justice of the Peace, lived several miles away. He may have been serving as the local Steward of the Poor.  (back)
  6. Charles Rogers & son appear on the Personal Property Books, but not the land books.  (back)

Sunday, 10 July, 1864

Quite pleasant. I proposed to remain at home as it was necessary for me to stay, and Bake and Nan went to Zion. Took Stuart up to see Mag and leave him a while, if they wish it. Bettie went to mind him. Zac returned from Zion to dinner. Bake and Nan returned to supper and Will, with them, to spend the night with me. I was so glad to see him. He is such a dear, good brother.1 – – Bartlett came from Richmond soon after breakfast, and Bill about ten. – – Sold his corn and butter Saturday, $52 per bushel for corn and 9-9 ½  $ per pound for 106 lbs. butter.- – Purchased ten pounds sugar @ $10 per pound, Calumet $3 an oz, camphor $8 an oz, and pepper $10 per pound.2

  1. Caroline’s brother Will, also referred to tomorrow as “Uncle Billy” and “Uncle Bill,” is likely William M. Ellett, Jr., age 40, listed in the 1860 KW U.S. Census. He lived at Riverview Farm at Cohoke on the Pamunkey where their late father William M. Ellett, Sr. once lived. Will was somehow left out of Clarke’s, Old King William Homes and Families. Besides these two William M. Elletts there was also in King William Caroline’s cousin William Ellett, son of Daniel Ellett, born 1803. He lived down the county past Colosse Church on the road to the “Indiantown” that is today’s Mattiponi Reservation, not far from Claiborne Johnson Hill.  (back)
  2. Calumet Baking Powder??  (back)

Saturday, 9 July, 1864

A pleasant morning. Very propitious for rain. Took a ride on Shakespeare to the oatfield and over to the wheat field. Returned again and gave out dinner to Martha. Sent Parky to shocking oats. – – Bake’s making a shuck hat for herself. Bettie twisted sewing cotton. Martha got dinner. Stuart is more quiet today, doesn’t fret as much as he did yesterday. – – Bettie cleaned the dining room floor this evening. – – Zac started to Dr. Lewis early this morning to accompany the girls to Mr. Robert Hill’s.1 They declined going. He spent the night. – – I walked up to the turn alone nearly about twilight.

  1. The Personal Property Tax Books for this period show a Robert Hill and a Robert C. Hill. But there is no listing for a Robert Hill in the Land books other than a Robert A. Hill who lives in New Kent County. Again, perhaps a later entry will help identify this Robert Hill.  (back)

Friday, 8 July, 1864

Quite a pleasant day. Getting on tolerably well cutting oats and we had pretty weather this week for it. Ju came down this evening and took supper before he left. I am glad to see his spirits are so much better this evening than they have been since meeting with his misfortune. He met with an accident at the spring. Dropped his pocket book in and got a great many notes wet. I took them out and dried them for him. Stuart has been right puny today, cutting more teeth I imagine. Let Mr. Davis have 5 bushels corn this evening.1 Zac delivered it. He is to return the corn or pay me $50, less in the Wt than it is selling for at this time. Mr. Brown is selling his for $250 for Wt at his door. 2

  1. There are several Davis families living within three miles of the Courthouse.  (back)
  2. Mr. Archie Brown, described as a merchant in Malcolm Harris’ Old New Kent County.., lived at North Point, upriver from Woodbury about three miles. The location can been seen on the Gilmer map.  (back)

Thursday, 7 July, 1864

Very warm today. A pleasant shower this evening. Bill rode Duroc to the C.H. this morning and returned after we had finished dinner. – – Started to Richmond this evening with a small load, consisting of butter, corn, &c, &c, 15 bushels corn and about 120 lbs. fresh butter, in five jars, one four-gallon, one three-gallon and three two-gallon – Ten bags in all. Gave Bill my coupons to collect and a list of the Registered Bonds, also a R.R. check for $39. Requested him to collect the money for corn shipped there in the spring and convert it into 6 percent bonds. – – Bartlett started with the Tumbrel about 6 o’clk. – – I sent Aunt Becky to Ju’s this morning to stay until I see fit to take her away.1 He is willing to pay liberal taxes. Zac started to Essex this morning.2 – – Returned sometime in the night and turned his horse in the oatfield, he did not come in at all. Sent Mary’s cloth 9 ½  f and 15 ½ coarse and 2RK collars for herself and Mrs. Wigins.3

  1. I have recently added a photo of Dr. Junius Littlepage on his bio page.  (back)
  2. Zac is headed to Essex County, Virginia, on the other side of King & Queen, probably to Tappahannock. But yesterday Caroline wrote he was going to Millers, on the road about half way to Tappahannock. ?  (back)
  3. I have been unable to identify Mrs. Wigins. No Wigins, or Wiggins for that matter, appears in the usual sources. Perhaps she is living with a local family. Suggestions? And I assume if the 15 ½ is coarse the “f” of  “9 ½ f” means fine. No idea about “RK” collars.  (back)

Wednesday‚ 6 July, 1864

Extremely warm again. Notwithstanding, all the family have had colds and suffer a good deal with them. – – Nannie started to school this morning. The first time since the Yankees came some time in May, about the middle I believe. Tom went to bring Shakespeare back. – – Found on arriving at school nearly all of the books had been stolen by the Yankees and the rest scribbled up, and old Lincoln’s Proclamation laid about in different places requesting it to be read and sent to their neighbors.1 – – Zac rode a mule to Claiborne Hill to look at a horse he has for sale.2 He took him home on trial. Will take her if she suits him. Makes his own bargain and pays for his horse himself. I hope whatever he does may be for the best. He is going contrary to my wishes, but I will not oppose him. Parky ironed today, washed yesterday. – – Dellah and Bettie are both in the harvest field. The oats are very good. Zac rode his new horse to Dr. Lewis’ this evening. He has to report at Millers tomorrow.3 Returned at 12 tonight.

  1. As Rumford Academy was within five miles of Woodbury, and was being operated during the war as “Rumford Male and Female School,” I had initially though Nannie was attending school there. But Dr. John Latane Lewis was also operating a closer small private girls school at his home “Auburn” that time. It seems Nannie was attending there, boarding during weekdays.  (back)
  2. Claiborne Johnson Hill, about 30, married Susan Ann (Puss) DeFarges in 1859 and moved to her family’s properties near Sandy Point. In 1863 Hill is shown paying taxes on “Brookes” which is adjacent to the DeFarges homeplace near Sandy Point. However the 1865 Gilmer Map shows C. J. Hill living not at Brookes, but between there and the residence of Col. R. King, Sandy Point. There also seems to be a discrepancy in the location of the Hill and King family residences between the Gilmer Map and the 1976 Garber / Wendenburg Map. A bit more research is needed here.  (back)
  3. Zac, 17, was now subject to Confederate conscription. “Millers” would be Miller’s Tavern in King & Queen County.  (back)

Tuesday, 5 July, 1864

Cool & pleasant out today.1 Added another mower to the oatfield (Washington). Sent Zac to his Uncle Hardin’s to request him again to return the Scythe cradle I loaned him last year.2 – – He returned to dinner not having seen him. – – Bake is worn out with her cloth, it is so fine and tender. Mag can never appreciate it I am sure. It is a great deal more trouble than it is worth. I’m really sorry for her, she cried over it every day. It certainly wears my patience out. – – Dellah assisted Bartlett weeding peas.

  1. This portion of the page was badly damaged. But a very close inspection reveals “& pleasant.  (back)
  2. Uncle Hardin was Col. Hardin Littlepage, Caroline’s late husband Lewis’ younger brother. He lived close by at “Aspen Grove,” where he and Lewis were born. Still standing, it is ¾ of a mile behind Oak Dale where Dr. Ju lived. Uncle Hardin married Susan Pemberton Robins, sister of John Armistead Robins. The profusion of nicknames, including military titles, seems necessary to distinguish among members of families which invariably recycled given names. And in a community in which there was frequent intermarriage among families, the same given names reside in profusion.  (back)

Monday, 4 July, 1864

A very pleasant pretty day. Zac carried Pigeo and Nannie Lewis to school in the buggy. I got up after breakfast and tried to use my arm a little. Replaced my china and crockery in the corner safe. _?_brought it from its hiding place. Very little like the freedom secured to us by our forefathers on this day, the anniversary of the 4th of July 1776, but we have abused that Liberty and the Lord sees fit to remind us of it. – – Parky’s at work in the garden, Patsy cooked breakfast, Dellah dinner and Parky supper. Patsy milks in the evening and Parky in the morning. I am teaching all the young ones to be cooks. I took a ride on Shakespeare this evening to the oatfield where they are cutting oats, Jim, Frederick and Bartlett, and then by the cowpen where Patsy’s milking. We milk eight fine cows now and abound in the nicest of milk and butter, and all are so fond if it, White and Black, except Uncle Oby, who eats neither.1 – – Bake and Zac took a long walk. – – Nan’s indisposed all day, and Bake has had the blues too, owing to their company leaving I imagine.

  1. Based on the 12 June entry it sounded like Uncle Oby lived at Sandy Point. As he seem to be included in “all are so fond of it, Black and White,” it now seem likely he lives at Woodbury. Perhaps his wife and family lived at Sandy Point. Maybe later on we can be more confident.  (back)