Quite a pretty day. Bill’s getting ready to commence seeding oats tomorrow. – – Patsy got three wild geese this morning, had them put in live. Bake and Pigeo walked with the children part of the way to school. – – Cut out two collars and a shirt for Bake and Pigeo to make for Zac, with calico bosom. – – Bake wrote to Mary today and will send the letter by Bartlett tomorrow morning when he goes over for her baggage. Had a wild goose for dinner. Dellah cooked dinner.
Quite a pretty day. We got off earlier to Church than we’ve been in the habit of doing. Cousin Lem requested last Sunday that we should all meet at ten o’clk. Commenced giving out the servants’ allowance on Saturday evenings. We all took dinner at Ju’s and returned to supper. Brought down my gallon of brandy I bought of Hill at 82 ½ $ pr gallon. Brought home my cloth and two bales cotton, got from the government, 82 yds. cloth, &c, $39 worth due now.
A beautiful day. Very unexpectedly, Pigeo and her Uncle Hill drove up in a buggy. She walked there yesterday evening in company with Miss Fletcher, who returned to Dr. Lewis from the gate. Gave Hill a piece of beef when he left, after his looking at the potatoes in the basement. The first time he was ever in the lockroom. – – Pigeo finished Mary’s dress off. – – The children returned from Mr. Slaughter’s this evening delighted to meet with Pigeo. – – Bill went out tonight and killed 3 wild geese.
A lovely day. I find much difficulty in dying black this fall. Cut out dress for Dellah, Martha, Bettie and Mary of the cloth Dellah has been weaving. – – Nan and Rose went to school prepared to spend the night and tomorrow at the tavern to return the little girls visit. – – Dellah sized a piece of coarse cloth this evening. – – Patsy broke the black wool for some double cloth for the boys, to be filled one end of the piece of cloth sized. – – Larkin came this morning to enquire what time Mrs. Warren Lipscomb became a member of Zion church.1
- Martha (Davis) Lipscomb, about 23, lived close by with her husband and two small children. Her husband was then Private Lipscomb, Company D, 53 Virginia Infantry which had many members from King William County. (back)
Rather an inclement morning, rained a little, but proved to be a right good day till evening. Zac went to Richmond for Bake in the buggy, drove Shakespeare. Sent Mary a piece of beef, some of my large potatoes, a piece of Zac’s birth cake, a pomegranate, &c. Gave him $1245 for Will to get new issue for.
A lovely day. Finished sowing wheat today, 95 bushels. Mr. J. Cobb is here part of the day.1 I was anxious for Zac to have gone to Richmond for Bake today. He hitched up and on examining the buggy, found it would be dangerous to drive it on account of the tire of the wheels being loose. Had them put in the river. Salted up the beef. Bill and Zac cut it out by my instructions.
- Likely John Cobb, about 57, who lived nearby. (back)
The weather is regularly cold. Killed a fine beef this morning. To my gratification, Zac came just before dinner on furlough of ten days at the expiration of which time he has to report to “Camp Lee” for duty, or he is considered a deserter. – – Just 18 years old, Sgt. J. C. Littlepage, District Mounted Reserves, Rappahannock District. “Roane” Commanding. “Col. Pause,” their first commander, distinguished himself very much in the fight around Richmond and has been promoted to “Lieut. General.”1 Zac is looking very well. Has been well treated on the Rappahannock. I want him to go to Richmond immediately for Bake while all is quiet around Richmond. Finished digging potatoes this evening. Made the best crop by far ever was made. We have cause to be thankful, that all things are as well with us as they are. We have a plenty of everything we should desire, and have had rest from the Yankees for several months in King Wm. For such mercies I am grateful to my Father in heaven. We have cause to thank him continually or may we not be unmindful of the obligations we are under to him at all times for his blessings, and endeavor to dispense all the good we can to those who need assistance. – – Dellah finished her cloth today, 42 yds. sent Ju 16 yds. plain cloth and five and a quarter double, that I had woven for him. – – Bill has sowed 87 bushels wheat, put in 29 ¾ bushels red wheat, inclusive.
- What a wonderful nickname. “Col. Pause” needs identification. (back)
Another pretty day. The children went to school today for the first time for ten or twelve days. Camm has been quite sick. – – Sent Martha and Buck to Hill’s for the gallon of brandy Rose said I could get, but she did not get it. Sent me a pair of ducks. I sent her some apple pie and a piece of roast shoat. – – Bill returned from court about dark. Says he bought me a nice reel from old Mr. Cosgrow for $25.1 – – Gave a list of male servants between the ages of 18 & 50.2 – – He promised Mr. Hillyard to lend him my mills to have one made by for grinding his sugar cane. – – I arose quite early this morning and pleated Nan’s linsy dress and commenced putting on the binding for her to wear to school, with a Garibaldi body. I lengthened her scarlet muslin today. – – Dellah stitched up a pair of pants for Zac. – – Martha dug potatoes this evening. Let Bettie and Parky cut down and pick up corn for the oats to be put in when we have finished sowing wheat.
- I have not been unable to identify old Mr. Cosgrow. While Cosgrow was written in the transcription, after looking at the journal I am not confident of anything past the “C.” (back)
- The impressment of slaves to serve quasi-military roles in the defense of Richmond is beginning to effect Woodbury. (back)
Quite a pretty day. Nan remained today. The rest of us attended Zion. Bill rode to the C.H. and returned to dinner. – – Beck came in to see me. She is on a visit from Ju’s. – – Sent Washington to “Dunnsville” to carry Zac some things.1 Sent a piece of shoat, a part of his birth cake I made and should have sent it sooner. – – Some grape puffs, a little bucket of butter, potatoes, biscuit, &c, &c. Also sent his boots with &c. – – Washington returned after I had gone to bed. I got up to read his letter. He sent me a nice bucket of apples, some chestnuts and a fine apple. Nan sent him a beautiful bouquet. We were so much pleased to hear from him. I was afraid he had been ordered to Richmond without coming by home. He could be at home in a day or two.
- Today Dunnsville is an unincorporated community in Essex County south of Tappahannock on Highway 17. During the Civil War it was the home of Camp Byron, the home of Company F of the 9th Cavalry, C.S.A. (back)
Quite a change in weather today. Cold enough for snow. – – Patsy and Martha are digging potatoes. – – Mrs. Larkin sent vat for a gallon of molasses. I sent it to be paid for hereafter. – – Bill left after breakfast for the lower part of the County, to return tomorrow evening, but came tonight unexpectedly. – – Bill has sowed 61 bushels wheat up to this time.
A lovely day. Patsy assisted Martha in digging potatoes today. We are digging a beautiful parcel of fine potatoes. – – Nan rode up for the mail. I received letters from Bake, Zac and Pigeo. – – Nan went with Dellah after grapes and leaves this evening. Mrs. C. Garrett sent me a nice piece of beef this evening.
Fine weather. Our potatoes are turning out finely. – – Two government wagons came for fodder. Bill gave more than the quantity, but will deduct in corn. – – Sent Tom up to mail a letter to Mary from Rose and myself. Received a note from Ju requesting me to send the money for the wheat I purchased of him, and the money for Bill’s horse. I did so by giving him an order on Turner & Moore for $2500. – – Nan drove Shakespeare up and carried him a letter enclosing it. – – Bill has sowed 41 bushels white wheat in all up to this time. He would like to have gone to Miss Ellen Gresham’ s wedding tonight by special invitation, but had not a suitable suit to wear.1 – – Cut out a pair of pants a piece for Bill and Zac.
- Probably Ellen Gresham, about 19, the daughter of William Dew Gresham who appears in the 1860 King & Queen U.S. Census. She married William Dew of King & Queen, probably a cousin of some description, who was about 10 years older. They appear together in the 1870 US Census living in King & Queen. (back)
We have beautiful weather now. Bill’s quite busy sowing wheat, put in some 35 bushels white wheat, I believe. – – I walked up to see Uncle Oby and spent an hour in Patsy’s house. Came by where Martha’s grabbling for potatoes.1 I looked at the servants’ boys. They have five of the most beautiful boys I wish to see. – – Sent Dellah and Bettie after walnut leaves. – – Had a fine shoat killed this morning.
- Caroline definitely wrote grabbing. The “for” is faint in the journal. Today we would probably say grubbing for potatoes. (back)
Quite a pretty day again. Had a barrel of molasses reboiled and then had the boilers filled with walnut leaves and wool for black for Zac’s clothes. The children are at home again today on account of Mr. Garrett. Rose wrote to her Mother. Bill brought me a letter from Bake. – – No wheat sowed today. Bill’s otherwise engaged.
A very beautiful day. Commenced sowing wheat today. Bill sowed 16 bushels. – – Mrs. Moser came and brought my tin bucket. Gave her some butter in consideration. – – Old Mrs. Lipscomb came also. Brought a jug for molasses. Made some more grape and apple preserves today. – – Martha’s about the potatoes. Dellah weaving. Bettie got more leaves for dying. Nannie rode to the C. H. and had Liv’s letter mailed. They are both at home on account of Camm’s being sick. – – Patsy spinning yarn for flannel and Parky spinning cotton for servants’ clothes. – – I am feeling right indisposed today. Have been spitting up blood from come cause or other. Slight hemorrhage from the lungs I imagine. – – Mr. Hillyard and St. Coalter came to bring Bill papers from Lieut. Haw.1 They rode to the field. I sent dinner there, but Bill did not want it and turned the boy back. I dined at table on what I sent him. Miss Judy was here, and amuses us so much.
- St. George Tucker Coalter, II of King William, 24, was a member of the Home Guard on Light Duty. St. George’s grandfather was John Coalter, lawyer and Justice of the Virginia Supreme Court from 1811 to 1831. John Coalter was a tutor in the family of St. George Tucker (1752-1827), the distinguished lawyer, judge, and professor at the College of William and Mary. Coalter worked as tutor without pay, but in exchange for legal training. St. George Tucker Coalter, II’s mother was Judith Harrison Tomlin, older sister of Col. Harrison Ball Tomlin of the King William’s 53rd Virginia. Liv. Littlepage enlisted under Col. Tomlin. (back)
A beautiful day. – – Bill left after breakfast with one of the Guards, and the rest of us, Nan, Rose and myself left for Zion. – – Gave Martha and Bettie permission to visit their relations at Miss Mildred Garlick’s.1 We returned by Ju’s to dinner and from there called by Larkin’s to see Miss Elvira, who is sick.2 Met with Mrs. Wm. Garrett’s family there.3 From there I called to see Camm and Mrs. Garrett, the former quite sick. After arriving at home, sent Dellah with a loaf of bread, butter and a couple slices Zac’s birthday cake to them. It was nearly dark when she got back. – – Larkin sent a boy on a horse to borrow some quinine for Elvira. I sent him 20 or 25 grains. – – Bill came after we had gone to bad very early, having lost his nice snack I put up for him, bag, towel and all.
- The 1860 KW U.S. Census shows M. C. Garlick, 50, as head of a Household, living alone. The next entry is Archie Brown of North Point who we met 8 July. Land tax rolls show Mildred C. Garlick with 240 acres held in fee simple next to Archie Brown. On the Gilmer map a Garlick household is shown on the road to North Point and the main road. It is likely Martha and Bettie were headed to that household to visit family. Mildred was a daughter of Samuel Garlick, Jr., the Garlicks an old neighborhood family. (back)
- Miss Elvira Garrett was Larkin and Camm Garrett’s sister, about 44 in 1864. (back)
- William W. Garrett, Jr., about 53, and wife Ann lived close to Camm and Larkin in King William in the 1850 census. The 1863 tax book shows him in King William’s Upper Parish, probably just south and east of Sharon Church. William was likely a cousin of Elvira, Larkin, and Camm. (back)
Quite a beautiful morning. Mrs. Moser came while I was in the dining room making a birthday cake for Liv and Zac, as they came in a few hours of each other. She brought the balance of the money for the corn. I gave her $10 and some butter and lard. They are honest people I believe. She took a tin bucket to have a bottom put on. Had some potatoes gotten in today. It would be well to have them all dug, I believe. Made preserves of grapes today. With molasses they are very nice. Made some to send Zac, but Bill came about 9 and said Zac would be at home on furlough in a day or two, so I shall not send. They are ordered to Richmond in ten days, Phil says. – – Answered Liv’s letter tonight, a page on foolscap.
Beautiful fall weather, but rather cool for the season. – – Nan and Rose started to school again this morning, but soon returned. Mr. Garrett still sick. I’m very sorry they’ve lost a good deal of time this year from the time the Yankees first came. – – Mrs. George sent to request me to grind her cane and make molasses. I would have done it if she had sent sooner or rather if we had not taken up the mill. – – Sent Washington to Jessee Dungee’s for Zac’s Cavalry boots, got them. Will take them to him tomorrow. – – Dellah commenced the striped cloth for their dresses today. – – Cut off the skirt of a calico dress for Nan to make for herself. Ju spent the evening. Bill returned while he was here. Gave us a description of his adventures with conscripts and deserters. – – Patsy is preparing wool for flannel.
A fine day. Yesterday was Liv’ s birthday and today is Zac’s. Poor children, how are they celebrating those days? Separation and imprisonment are theirs. Sadness, grief and sorrow, ours.
We mourn the living not the dead
We weep not for the early fled
Should we wish those bring back
Who have crossed life’s stormy track?
We would not have them on time share,
Mid the din of cannons roar.1
Nan and Rose returned from school about 12. Mr. Garrett sent the children word that he was sick. – – Planted potatoes, onions today, 2 or 3 hundred hills, not more. – – Bill left after breakfast to take up deserters and conscripts. I sent Washington on Shakespeare to see Mr. Ware about the chimney. He says he doesn’t know when he will be able to come. – – Sent a note to Ju requesting him to bring Bake down if he goes to Richmond this week. He was not at home. – – Mr. Anderson, an old acquaintance of Bill’s, formerly of Baltimore, came this morning and remained all night.2 I liked him very much. He is a good looking man. I don’t know when Bill will be back. – – Mag sent me a very nice roasting piece of beef, quite a treat.
- The Littlepages subscribed newspapers and to religious and secular magazines. They were fond of copying or cutting out poems. I have looked for these lines in a few issues of the short-lived Southern Illustrated News and The Southern Literary Messenger of the war years. But I have been unable to find the source of this short poem. Suggestions welcomed. It is interesting to note that in the Journal the text of the verse was written as presented here, justified right with a large block of unused space to the left. Perhaps something was to have been pasted in that space. Perhaps not. (back)
- Mr. Anderson remain unidentified. (back)
Very seasonable weather. Zac started away this morning after breakfast. Gave $100 to buy an overcoat and $20 to buy a pair of saddle pockets, as he had an excellent pair burnt up when he lost his clothes and other things. – – Had the rest of the molasses put in the barrel. Made over five barrels, about 175 gallons I suppose. – – Bill left with Zac. I hardly know where he has gone, he is here and there and every where. O! if Bake was only at home, poor child. I am afraid this will be the end of her. She can’t stand excitement of any kind. Still has fright from that unprincipled race of beings.1 – – Bill came to supper to our surprise, intending to leave at 12. Prepared something for him to carry, but the rain prevented him. He laid on the lounge in my chamber. Arose at 12 and found it raining and remained all night. – – Parky washed, Patsy commenced making onion hills.
- “unprincipled race of beings” is a phrase used to describe native Americans in Henry Trumbull’s History of the Discovery of America,…published in 1802. Trumbull lived in Connecticut and wrote with that distinctly New England point of view. The phrase is being used here by Caroline to describe Yankees. Irony abounds. Also note that the word race was long used to describe groups of others, often in a non-flattering manner. For example, the English would often refer to the Irish race. Closer to home, Dr. Malcolm H. Harris in his Old New Kent County… (1977) wrote on page 818 of King William’s Roane family, “The Roanes were an unusual race.” In doing so he harkened back to that old usage. By the mid 20th-century the use of the word had been successfully narrowed to refer to the quasi-scientific defining groups by physical characteristics, with associated behavioral assumptions, usually for social or political purposes. (back)
A very beautiful day and quite warm. Got the boilers to work pretty early this morning. Boiled upwards of thirty gallons molasses today, excellent molasses. Hill and W. D. Pollard came by as the huntsmen passed.1 I gave them a snack of biscuit and molasses. They were very much pleased with it. Made a finish today, having been ten days closely employed about all the time and I can say that I am heartily tired of it. – – Zac has been trying all day to get ready to start to his Camp, but gave it out. Made it too late. – – Bill arrived about 5 o’clk. – – Put on the third boiling of juice after Bill came, and I had to give it up to them to have finished and go in and lie down. They wound up with big molasses stew. Nan helped to pull it. Bill had the tubs molasses brought in and retired having lost sleep hunting for men. – – Patsy prepared the ground and made the hills for potatoes and onions today. – – Poor Bake, I am sorry it’s entirely out of my power to send for her. Bill and Zac are both ordered away this week. – – I had the hogs put up today. They are becoming so troublesome.
- William D. (Dandridge) Pollard appears in the 1863 tax rolls as the owner of one slave and one horse. But he does not appear as a land owner. As he first appears on the list in 1861 (with only a watch to declare), this would indicate a young man. Why then is he not in the military service of the C.S.A. ? This is explained in the KW Conscript Book of Lieut. George Haw. W. D. Pollard, 26, is exempt because he is Clerk of Circuit Court, deputy for J. O. (James Otoway) Pollard, 44, his uncle. W. D. was one of a long line of Pollards in the KW Clerk’s office. His portrait, along with other Pollards, hangs in the old KW Courthouse. (back)
Frost as white as snow this morning and ice almost 16th part of an inch thick. All things concur to retard our process in starting the boilers this morning. The frost on the cane, and I suppose a slight freeze, prevents its crushing well and it was fully 12, I think, before we got them filled, but when the molasses was taken off it was a first rate turn out of excellent molasses, 11 ½ gallons. We soon got on the next two, which turned out 10 ½, very beautiful. I’ve certainly had my hands full today. Everything to attend to myself. Had the corn shelled off, the husks and ashes burnt to make the log for clearing. I prefer it to soda. It’s now ten o’clk. at night and Bill has not returned yet. Zac took a snack and went down the County to see Jessee Dungee to get him to repair his boots and returned at dark.1 The children returned from school just before him. – – Zac’s in the kitchen having a molasses stew tonight. Bartlett’s attending to it for him, and Nan’s helping him to pull it. I am so tired I can’t write any more.
- Jessee Dungee was listed as a shoemaker in the KW 1850 & 1880 US Censuses. He was listed as Free and a Mulatto in 1850. King William Tax records show him as a landowner in 1860. He may have been the son of Jessee Dungee of New Kent County who appears in the 1830 US Census as a “Free Colored Person.” For more information click on his name above. (back)
As cold as December almost. First frost we have had. – – One of the guards, Mr. Madison, took breakfast.1 Came to inform Bill that an order had been issued requiring them to go to Richmond. He started immediately to notify all the rest. Rest of us attended church. Cousin Lem was very interesting indeed. I think he improves so much in speaking, generally has a good audience. – – Heard of the death of poor Mrs. Munday today. We returned by Ju’s and home to dinner. After dinner, Nan and Rose, Martha with them, went to see Mrs. Garrett’s baby.2 – – Sent her loaf bread, butter and a couple sora for breakfast by Dellah this morning. Ju handed me a letter from Bake and three papers as we passed there. She’s most anxious to get home since the fighting has commenced around Richmond. There are many fears entertained for its safety.
Fine morning, but came on blustering and cold enough for ice almost. Bill went with the wagon after breakfast to Mr. Garrett’s for wheat purchased of Ju for seed at $50 per bushel, red wheat he purchased of Mr. Hillyard. – – Nan and Rose went to the big Chinquapin tree before breakfast. Got a good many to put away for Xmas. – – Sent Mrs. Garrett a bottle molasses, loaf bread, muffins and _?_ by Dellah this morning. She and the little baby are doing very well. – – Miss Judy came this evening. Gave her a bottle of molasses and some other things.1 Martha attempted to take the geraniums in the house, thinking the wind would break them into pieces, and had a terrible accident to happen to them. Upset the bench and lost 4 geraniums, an apple, fish, nutmeg and rose. I was really put out about it, but tried to persuade myself it was all for the best, though I couldn’t see exactly how. – – A plough and two draft are at work today after Bartlett returned. – – Bill and Zac took a walk to look for ducks, but were unsuccessful. – – Zac went in the marsh and killed 15 sora last night, and I bought a doz. from Jim, making three doz. I’ve bought 9 $10 pr doz.
- Miss Judy, who will also appear later, remains unidentified. (back)
The prettiest day we have had this week. Very well with the molasses today. Bill road away for a short time. The children went to school today for the first time since this day three weeks. – – Ju rode down this evening to let Bill know he wished him to send for the red wheat at Mr. Garrett’s. He will send, nothing preventing, in the morning. – – Very soon after Ju came, a messenger came from Mrs. Munday’s saying he was sent for by Dr. Lewis to see Mrs. Mundy, who is very ill.1 He went immediately.2 – – I have scarcely had time this week to think of preparing Zac’s clothes. It engages me closely to attend to the many chores of the molasses. It is certainly a troublesome job. Still, I like the prices very much.
- Caroline consistently spells the family name as Mundy although the generally accepted spelling is Munday. To avoid any confusion it is rendered consistently here as Munday. (back)
- Initially I thought this Mrs. Munday was Mrs. Elizabeth G. [Armstrong] Munday, who would have been about 70. She appeared living with her son, Robert A. Munday, and his family in the 1850 US Census at Liberty Hall, a substantial estate on the Pamunkey just upriver from Elsing Green. But according to the Richmond Whig, she died 10 December, 1852. So the ill Mrs. Munday is Anne [Lewis] Munday, the widow Robert A. Munday’s. Robert died 22 November, 1860. Anne would have been about 34 and probably a cousin of Dr. Lewis. (back)
Quite a pretty day, but a little windy, which operates a little against the process of making molasses. It’s no little trouble. Put a stop to most every other kind of work. The loom, the wheels, the ploughs, the knitting, the sewing, and all are waiting up on it. Filling the 3rd barrel, with six of very pretty quality. – – The children have not been to school this week. Nan has a little sore on her ankle and I am afraid for her to walk much on it. She assists me a good deal about the molasses. It frequently boils over and is very nice. I think she has fallen on it. Had more grapes gotten by Dellah and picked off the vine. – – Bill rode to the Court House today. Says the news from the Army is very flattering. – – But oh! why does the war not cease, shall we never have peace again and set the prisoners free.
We all arose quite early this morning. Bill had corn shelled for Jim to carry to mill. Had birds picked for breakfast and the two boilers started too. Barrel filled up last night. – – Commenced filling the second barrel this morning, put in 25½ gallons molasses. – – Had the grapes pressed and the juice strained and filled a 16 gallon carboy, a two gallon jug and a one gallon carboy. – – Zac took Buck along with him and went ducking. Killed one very fat duck. – – Nan has quite an ugly sore on her ankle which prevented her and Rose going to school today. Dellah weaves very little this week. Patsy weeded the walks in the yard and circle.
The weather still cloudy. Bill didn’t retire till 3 last night and there was no early rising this morning. The Lieut. left about ten. Zac went up to see if any mail came, but there was none. There is no one to send a paper. Every man who can shoulder a musket has been ordered to the field. – – Made about the same quantity of molasses we did yesterday, about 40 gallons in all. Nearly filled one barrel. I am in hopes to finish this week, for it hinders everybody. Put Parky to pulling the fodder today. – – Patsy washed, Bettie weeded the circle. – – The weather has been too wet for the children to go to school this week. They are altogether taken up at the furnace. We have four boilers at work, and pulling fodder, hauling cane and grinding at the same time keeps all pretty well employed. Bill and Zac went in the marsh tonight and killed 2 doz. and 5 sora. They are very fat. – – Sold 2 lbs. butter to Sallie for $17.