Wednesday, 28th February, 1866

Quite a pretty day. Bill has had beautiful weather while in Richmond. I entered 30 yds. coarse cloth for Dellah to weave today. She made a commencement, striping a dress for Patsy. – – Hardie hooped some tubs and buckets for me. Makes himself useful whenever he can. He is like a fish out of water now, but I hope the time is not far distant when he will swim again. A state of suspense is not very pleasant. – – Martha commenced taking up a mound of turnips today. Patsy washed.

Tuesday, 27th February, 1866

The weather quite cool, some ice today. – – Got Hardie to take a bushel sweet potatoes up to Liv to exchange for Irish. He sent me 1½ bushels. Dipped a nice parcel of candles today, 56 sticks, ½ doz. on each. Hardie and Nan amused themselves at it awhile and assisted me right much. I was really tired when I came out of the kitchen. – – My hens commenced laying this week. Have 21 in all and two roosters, a gobbler and 4 turkey hens. – – Ju sent me a few garden seed by Hardie, kale, parsnips, cabbage and asparagus. We all took supper in the chamber tonight. Hardie and Zac were in the river till late.

Monday, 26th February, 1866

Another pretty day, but cold. I arose quite early and after breakfast had three gobblers picked and a couple of dunghill fowls to send by Bill, ½ bushel galavance peas, a bucket of molasses to Liv, a pullet to Rose, 16 bsh. wheat, 11 lbs. bacon, hams and shoulders, 5 each. – – Started ½ hour after sun, sent letters to Mary, Bake and Pigeo, and Hardie sent one to Danville, also sent a box of summer clothes to Pigeo, for Fred Power to take up to her by promise. Sent three dresses, two underskirt lining and trimming for dresses, and bodice and trimming for bonnet. – – Corbin drove the wagon, and Randolph went over on a visit. Carried 12 hogs and a hamper with fowls, two of corn. – – Then all of the boys went to court. Bill brought me letters from Bake and Liv, and Nannie one from Pigeo and one from Liv.

Saturday, 24th February, 1866

Quite a pretty morning. Jim and Tom hauled manure in the garden, and was getting the square ready for Corbin to plough when it set in to rain and stopped garden operations just about dinner time. I had just gotten my hot bed ready to sow. Bill and Hardie burnt the grass and I am afraid injured some of my little trees, besides burning up my sage bushes. – – Had some molasses warmed to put in carboys. Filled a 5 gallon and a 2 gallon one. It was too thick to pour in cold.

Friday, 23rd February, 1866

A beautiful day again. Pretty weather for work, but for the ground being saturated with water. Only ploughed a little yesterday and today. This week Dellah came down and assisted in beaming my cloth after dinner. Commenced pulling it through the harness. I felt badly and Nan had a nice cup of coffee for me. After drank at, went in the garden and had some more grass burnt off. Bill has promised to have the garden ploughed tomorrow. – – I finished putting wicks on the sticks for candles. Have 44 lbs. tallow to dip. – – Bill took a ride to look for his hogs. Returned before dinner, and he and Hardie put the seine out, and only caught two ailwives. – – Sold Jim 5 ¼ lbs. wool today.

Thursday, 22nd February, 1866

Another pretty day. Zac and Caly started rather late to school.1 Hardie took a cold breakfast and started to Ju’s to go in company with him to his Uncle Hardin’s to go partridge hunting. – – Returned at dark, and all went down to eat some cold pudding saved for them at dinner. – – Nan gets along remarkably well with her studies, though she frequently complains of headache. Went in the garden after dinner and had some dry grass burnt. Let the fire get away and had to call Jim (who was putting up ashes for lye) to assist in whipping it out. Did no serious damage, only frightened me a little. Nannie ironed her new underskirt beautifully this evening. I starched it for her after the boys started to school. She didn’t come out to see Caly this morning, complaining of headache.

  1. Caly must be a nickname for Deucalion Gregory.  (back)

Wednesday, 21st February, 1866

Another very pretty day. The weather looks very much like gardening, but the ground is entirely too wet. – – Martha has been employed cleaning candlesticks, lamp, &c this evening. – – Deucalion Gregory came with Zac from school to spend the night. He is an exemplary nice youth. They sat up quite late in the parlor studying and playing dominoes. – – I laid down and took a nap. Arose quite early this morning and finished Martha’s dress before day. – – Bill rode to the Acquinton Church to collect interest on Mr. Houchings’ bond, which he has been promising to pay so long, but he seems to have made a great discovery. Thinks they have been paid. Hardie trimmed up my gravel road and put a frame around it, then went to the reedy marsh and got me some reeds for candle dipping. Returned at dark nearly very much fatigued. He is an obliging child, and I hope to see him doing a good business for himself before very long. – – I warped 30 yds. coarse cloth for Dellah to weave. She sized it while about dinner.

Tuesday, 20th February, 1866

A bright and beautiful morning. I sent Martha to Mrs. George’s for my coarse cloth, 37 yds. She has woven it contrary to my instructions and has put me to a good deal of inconvenience. Will have to put a piece of cloth in my loom in order to have Patsy a dress. – – Cut out one for Martha and Nan, and I, with her to help, soon made it. An excellent woolen dress, @ 6 a yard for weaving and ten cts. for the doublecloth. – – Bill rode Fannie away on some business and returned to supper. Hardie has been out with his gun most of the day. Got me some stick for candles. – – Mrs. Slaughter sent my glasses and lamp home with the chimney broken to pieces. I must make Patrick give me another. Bill found two sows and eight pigs, some were drowned.

Monday, 19th February, 1866

It has rained incessantly through the night and continued all day till late in the afternoon about sunset, when we had the last shower and the sunset clear. – – Nan has been sick and complaining all day. Laid down and slept several hours. Zac and Hardie also are very unwell with a cold. – – There is nothing in the world the hands can do in the way of farming. They are a dead expense to us. There is some little corn in the barn to shuck or they could find no employment. The earth is completely saturated with water. – – I have been darning the boys socks and jobbing about different things today. Covered the cushion of my chair, &c. – – Martha spotted the parlor and passage. Patsy commenced spinning warp for counterpanes, finished some candlewick she has been spinning. Zac’s writing compositions he omitted on Saturday. Reads his Bible a good deal. Is very fond of it, he and Nan both. They frequently read to me. – – Nan was too sick to study today. – – I commenced putting on wicks to dip candles, after taking a nap at twilight. The boys and Nannie are reading. Zac went with me down to get some pickles and potatoes to roast. Bill retired early. – – Zac and Hardie put out the seine and caught a few ailwives, they are very fine.

Sunday, 18th February, 1866

A cloudy, rainy, dismal looking day. Set in to rain the evening and rained all night. Nan is quite indisposed and remained at home and Bill with her. Hill wished to know if Bill sent him a message. He is very uneasy respecting the administration of Col. Hill in Jno. Deffarge’s estate, as he is one of the securities among many others.1 – – We called by Ju’s a few minutes and home to dinner. Hardie rode Fannie. Zac went in the carriage with me, Randall drove. Some dissatisfaction is produced with Corbin on account of higher wages being offered by his former mistress, though our bargain was set for a stipulated price for this year. He has forfeited the contract and we have to increase his wages in order to get him to remain. – – Commenced weighing meat to the men this morning. Tom has been sick several days.

  1. Col. William Claiborne Hill and John S. DeFarges were in-laws. The Colonel’s son Claiborne Johnson Hill, often referred to as Major Claiborne Hill, married DeFarges’ daughter Susan Ann (Puss). We met this couple back on 6 July, 1864. John S. and his wife Adaline [Neale] Defarges had two other children: Alice N., who died of “intermittent fever” in March 1864 at the age of 16 while at Albemarle Female Institute, and John S. Defarges, Jr. who would now be about 16. John Sr. died in 1856, a full decade before Caroline’s journal entry. From her entry we learn that Col. Hill administered John Senior’s estate and her brother-in-law James Hill King had posted a bond on behalf of Col. Hill as administrator. We also are reminded of how long the settlement of estates can be. Unfortunately I have yet to find any information about the estate, or the source of Caroline’s concern. It also may be appropriate to note here that the family name, of obvious French heritage, is found spelled in multiple ways. Sometimes there is a space following the De, other times not. If there is a space the first letter is sometimes not capitalized, as in “de Farges.” The f is usually capitalized, but not always. In some older renderings there are two ffs. Caroline uses Deffarges. And then there is the matter of pronunciation; is the s pronounced or not? That may account for some written renderings that drop the s. Researchers using computer text searches must be careful to use all possibilities. And if any of our readers can provide pronunciation help, please do. I chose to default to DeFarges in this footnote. But I can be talked out of it.  (back)

Saturday, 17th February, 1866

A lovely day, weather more moderate. Bill and Hardie are out nearly all day. Randall carried 12 bushels corn to the mill and brought the meal from 12 bush. The boys walked to the C. H. while they were out. Heard there they intended having another hop, so many good things were left on the 14th, more than they consume. – – I spent the day mostly reading the “Mormons” of Josephine.1

  1. The 02/01 1841 issue of Times and Seasons, a Mormon newspaper published in Nauvoo, IL, reprinted a review of The Book of Mormon that had recently appeared in the newspaper the New-Yorker. The article had been forwarded to the paper by “A. G. Gano, Esq. of Cincinnati.” The review was signed “Josephine,” “supposed” in the Times and Seasons as the pen name of a daughter of “Gen. Sandford.” This may have been Charles W. Sandford, a lawyer who in 1841 was Major General of the First Division of the New York State Militia. As the eldest daughter of General Sandford (Lucy) would still have been a teenager in 1841, none of his four daughters were likely “Josephine.” Perhaps the General’s wife, Mary, penned the review and chose the name of the wife of a late French general who was better-known. Caroline was certainly reading a reprint of that article, or perhaps “Josephine” wrote again on the Mormon religion. While her article was benign enough to be reprinted by the Mormons, anti-Mormon religious tracts appeared early and often. Anti-Mormonism would grow to become a significant national religious, political, and cultural phenomenon. But it became especially hostile, politically sensitive, and violent in the American South after the Civil War. A recent book goes into detail. Thanks to Richard Lyman Bushman for his Joseph Smith – Rough Stone Rolling, A cultural biography of Mormonism’s founder (2005), which provided the reference that makes this footnote possible. His book provides an excellent window into the religious climate of the 1820s – 1840s, a time that also gave rise to the Christadelphians, the religious group in which the Littlepages became active participants. Mormons and Christadelphians have shared being described as cultish and anti-Christian by many “mainstream” Christians. But the rich religious stew of the times provided another connection. Mr. A. G. Gano, who forwarded “Josephine’s” article, was the brother Cincinnati’s better-known Daniel Gano. In 1832 Daniel befriended and offered lodging to recent English immigrant Dr. John Thomas. Dr. Thomas has already appeared here in Caroline’s Journal. It was through this Gano that Dr. Thomas became acquainted with the Disciples of Christ and its founder, Alexander Campbell. Quickly a disciple and colleague of Campbell’s, Dr. Thomas soon acrimoniously split with him. Thomas then began sowing the seeds of the religious community that would become the Christadelphians.  (back)

Friday, 16th February, 1866

The weather is piercingly cold, so much so that Zac could not have gone to school but for some persuasion. I thought as the day was bright and but little wind he could stand it, having lost several days during the warm, wet weather a short time ago. – – Nan missed her chill today after taking the coffee first thing this morning. It is a simple thing, but proves effective sometimes. Hardie says she gets along remarkably well with her French, as she does with every other study. Recites perfectly and improves very fast in drawing. Has very little time for work tho’. Patsy’s spinning candle wick, Martha does little more than job.

Thursday, 15th February, 1866

A bitter change has taken place in the weather. Had some rain last night and this morning everything is freezing and the wind blowing a cracker, and I am right much indisposed withall. Three ploughs started to work this morning, but I don’t know whether they ploughed much or not. The day has been so disagreeable. – – Bill and Hardie returned from the C. H. at one o’clk. Took a snack and went to bed. Hardie took a short nap. Bill slept till near sunset. I had the lamb brought from the office and carried in the dining room. It is so cold. Nan fed it and after waiting for the fire to die out in the stove all left the dining room. But Nan had a presentment that it would get in the stove as she opened the door to help extinguish the fire, but I laughed at the idea of anything going into the fire, and sure enough when she and Bill went down, found it in the stove burned to death. She and I had such a cry over it. It was such a promising pretty lamb and so fond of us all. – – But maybe it’s all for the best. It took up a great deal of her time from her studies and she would expose herself running out to see about first the lamb in the office, then her sheep in the garden, and her health is delicate anyway this winter. Had a chill yesterday and expects another tomorrow morning. I’ve made some strong coffee, and exposed to the night air again tonight, without sugar or cream. It has cured her in one instance. I am tired of quinine. Randall went to plough. Was sick yesterday after returning from the interment of his mother. – – Sent Mr. Edwards some dried peaches by Zac today.

Wednesday, 14th February, 1866

The weather almost too warm for the season. I did some little to Bill’s suit he intends wearing to the hop this evening. He and Hardie started about 4, drove George to the buggy. – – Martha ironed today. Nan sold Washington a pair of gloves for $1, knit on a bone three double. – – We necessarily have to pit a lamb. The mother has two beautiful lambs and disowns one of them, and I am not willing to see it die, it is so fine and beautiful a lamb. That is the second instance of this kind we have had this winter.

Tuesday, 13th February, 1866

The weather very moderate. Bill rode away to attend to some business. Saw Mr. Terry about building a boat. – – Patsy washed. Uncle Oby sent to me for provisions. I sent him meal, flour, meat, &c, &c by his daughter. Had a delightful oyster pie for dinner, Martha cooked. – – Nan went about a bleached underskirt this evening, after getting through her studies. – – Hardie takes a great deal of pains in explaining her French. She writes French exercises every day and writes compositions or a letter once a week. Bill returned to supper. – – Jim carries six bushels wheat to Hill’s mill. Returned 6 o’clk.

Monday, 12th February, 1866

I am sitting up writing in my journal an hour or two today, and the rain is coming down in torrents. Has rained all night I believe. Day very changeable and warm. Bill is having corn shucked and straw hauled in the lot. – – Another ewe disowns one of her lambs, something very remarkable. Second instance of this kind this spring. She has two beautiful healthy strong lambs and refuses to nurse one of them. Bill brought it in and I fixed some milk for it. I am afraid I shall have to make a pit pet lamb of it, and they are so troublesome. One gave me so much trouble last spring. – – I have been repairing some pants and a roundabout for the boys today. Gave John another pair of pants today. – – It is so very wet. Zac had to ride to school today. – – Had Hardie’s wild turkey for dinner. They all enjoyed it very much. – – Mr. Norment and Jack Cooke spent the afternoon.1 They wish the privilege of loading wood at our landing. Bill granted it. – – Nannie commenced French under Hardie today. Hope she will make good progress while he remains at home. He has such a perfect knowledge of the French language. – – Had the parsnips and carrots taken up by Martha, and the old peasticks removed in order to commence gardening when the weather is fit.

  1. Jack is surely John McPherson Cooke, son of the late Reverend John Cooke of Hanover who we met in a footnote on 20 September, 1864. Jack seems to have recently moved to Enfield. He is with his neighbor Sam Norment of White Bank.  (back)

Sunday, 11th February, 1866

The weather is much moderated. Bill remained at home. The rest of us attended Zion, Zac in the carriage with Nan and myself and Washington to drive, and Hardie on Fannie. Stanley Neale handed me a letter from Liv. – – And Jim A. Robins brought one down for Hardie from Bake, enclosing a card of George’s and several letters. We all returned home to dinner. Had an oyster roast after dinner.

Saturday, 10th February, 1866

Quite a pretty day. Bill and Hardie went out before breakfast and killed a wild turkey and three ducks. – – Zac and Brumly went across the river to call on Miss Henley, found a good many there.1 They returned to dinner. Brumly left about 4 o’clk., and Bill in company with him to the C. H. Gave him $20 to pay Mr. Slaughter for 7 pounds seine thread @ $2.10 for pound. Brought the balance of money back. Hardie went out shooting this evening, but killed nothing. Sent 4 ducks by Jim to Jeff Hill tonight to sell. – – Mrs. Slaughter sent Adam for glass. Sent her sixteen jelly glasses, 19 goblets and six wine glasses, my passage lamp and silver. She returned my moulds. – – I gave Dellah a dress for Bennie this morning. Nan and I finished off a comforter this evening we commenced Monday. We enjoy the oysters so much.

  1. This Miss Henley is likely Virginia Thomas (Jennie) Henley, daughter of Joseph Temple Henley and Elizabeth Todd [Walker] Henley of Hillsborough, just across the river from Woodbury. A frequent visitor at Woodbury, we first met Mr. Henley on 19th June, 1864.  (back)

Friday, 9th February, 1866

Another pretty day. Blll and Hardie went to the C. H. quite early to prepare tickets for the Ball. They did not return till some time after dark, both very hungry. Bought tickets for distribution. A very large number of persons are invited to the Ball, or rather St. Valentine’s Hop, on the 14th. I am very glad Nan has no disposition to go, though if she had, I should not consent to it. Zac returned about sunset and Brumly Martin with him. – – Capt. Shelly brought up some fine oysters this evening at $1. pr. bushel.1 I traded a bushel corn for a bushel of oysters. Got two bushels. Bill will deliver the corn on his return from Ayletts, where he has gone to see his father, who is sick. – – John has been very complaining recently. I hardly know what to do for him. He is such a cripple. Has a great many wants and notions.

  1. This is probably William T. Shelly of Ayletts, listed in the 1860 US Census as “Bay Capt.” and in 1880 as a 49 year-old “Sea Captain.” A member of a family of sailors, he likely skippered one the boats that regularly ran up the Mattiponi.  (back)

Thursday, 8th February, 1866

I am still suffering with headache, but am making and repairing scarfs and cravats for Hardie and Zac and Bill. Very nice and pretty ones. They are very much pleased with them. – – Zac spent the night at Mr. W. Edwards.1 Bill and Hardie walked to the C. H. I don’t think the hired servants do much more than earn their rations. This is quite a pretty day, though the weather has been very much unsettled. Mrs. Slaughter sent a boy on a horse for my pyramid moulds, butter, &c, &c, and to know whether I would lend my glasses, silver and other things for the Ball. I sent the moulds, but hadn’t the butter to spare.

  1. Probably Warner Edwards of nearby Clover Plains.  (back)

Wednesday, 7th February, 1866

A cold, disagreeable morning, some snow, much colder than it was yesterday. Moved my hen and chickens in the office yesterday, and had the weaving room nicely cleaned by Martha. – – Hardie fixed the planks round the kitchen this morning. – – I wrote a page to Bake in Nan’s letter, and am suffering very much with a severe nervous headache. So much so that I couldn’t sleep tonight, and arose and took a sheet of letter paper and wrote several pages more to Bake, but have not finished my letter. – – Hardie killed a duck today. There has been very little snow this winter.

Tuesday, 6th February, 1866

Bill, with the hands, finished off the lot fence they commenced some time ago. Too cold to plough. Washington taken sick this evening. – – Hardie rode to the Acquinton Church and purchased a pair of boots at $8. Returned to dinner. Zac brought me a letter from Pigeo when he came from school this evening. She is improving in her health, and I doubt not in her studies. Is very much pleased with her school. Delighted with her room mates, Miss Jeffries, Miss Sadie Hopson, Miss Power and herself included, making four.1 – – And very much attached to the family she lives with.

  1. We learned 5 October last that Caroline wished Kittie Power, probably the Lucy B. listed in the 1870 US Census in the Henrico household of the late Dr. Frederick Power, as a classmate of Pigeo at Dr. Goss’ school. She seems to have gotten her wish. We met the Powers first on 15 July, 1864. While Miss Jeffries remains unidentified, we met Miss Sadie’s father on 15 November, 1865, and Sadie two days later. Unfortunately, in 1872 Kitty Power, 20, and her mother Caroline, 49, will die within weeks of each other. Consumption, a.k.a. Tuberculosis.  (back)

Monday, 5th February, 1866

Very cold. Hardie rode to the C. H. after taking a snack of partridge pie left yesterday. Bought me another pound soda, through mistake. Bill got a pound last week. I made a comfort today, except tacking it and Nan repaired a rug. – – Bill came in and took a snack and returned again to where the hands were getting wood. Zac walked to school. – – Nan finished a letter to Bake. Studies very well, considering she would do much better to be classed with others. She commenced “Peunocks History of Rome” today. Her other studies are Scholars Companion, Arithmetic, “Josephus,” writing and drawing.

Sunday, 4th February, 1866

One of the coldest and most disagreeable days we have had this winter and all remained at home except Zac, who attended Zion and returned to dinner. Very few were there on account of the day. Partridge pie for dinner. Dellah’s week to cook. – – Hardie and I sent letters by Addison to Mr. Slaughter to take to Richmond. I wrote to Liv, and he to Danville, Mr. Slaughter, Ju, Billy Pollard and Mr. Ratcliffe.1 Will go over in the morning.

  1. Again Caroline declines to name Hardie’s correspondent in Danville. Mr. Slaughter is likely P. H. Slaughter, merchant at the C. H., Billy Pollard is William D. Pollard, the Deputy Clerk of Court we first met back on 11 October, 1864, and Mr. Ratcliffe remains unknown. Ju is Hardie’s brother. Brother Liv is at Lexington at V.M.I.  (back)

Saturday, 3rd February, 1866

Cold and disagreeable. Zac has a fire in the basement and is writing and studying pretty much all day. Hardie has one in the front parlor and he is writing letters. Gave Horace his gun to go out shooting. Bill walked to the C. H. Gave him five dollars to subscribe to the Ball to take place at the C. H. on the 14th of this month. Didn’t oppose him much, but would greatly prefer his not doing so. He returned to dinner, fine wild duck roasted. Hardie joined Horace and returned after we had dined. They killed nothing.

Friday, 2nd February, 1866

A disagreeably cold and blustering day. Bill and Hardie are expecting Bill Dandridge and Mr. Geo. Ratcliffe to spend the day with them. They waited till 2 o’clk., gave them out and then went up to Walkerton Mill. – – Sent Addison to the C. H. for a qt. of whiskey. They returned at 4 o’clk. – – Zac came late this evening and Horace with him to spend the night. He staid with his brother Ju last night.